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s 



World 



Marilyn Clark 



Atmosphere 



V--T** 



Smog, Weather 



| Space Exploration, Super Star Trek Game 
Book Reviews, Puzzles, Future City Comics 




meet 

mind •benders 

1 r\ /-> rs r-\ r\ J\ -S\ — ^ L - ' — 



/ 



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OQQ 



the only magazine in the world 
devoted to games and puzzles of every 
kind, as composed and compiled by 
irresistable mind-benders for immovable 
mind-defenders: puzzles mathematical 
and problematical, logical and literal, 
analogue and digital, brain-bashing and 
eye-crossing . . . some for beginners, some for 
the casual, some for never-give-uppers . . . with 
mazes and crazes, networks and pathways, 
chessbits, pentominoes: and eight pages of 
crosswords from cryptic to crackpot ... All this and 
games galore! The games real people love to play: not 
only chess, cards, go, checkers and backgammon, 
but also all forms of word games and wargames, card 
games and board games . . . with in-depth studies of 
favourites like Monopoly, Scrabble, Diplomacy . . . 
notes historical and analytical . . and reviews of all the 
latest board games on the market as played, described and 
assessed by a panel of experts . . . plus readers' games, book 
reviews, queries, readers' letters, prize-winning competitions 



Annual subscription $10.80 

Send check to: Distribution Department (CO 
London W1 A 4XF • England 



Games & Puzzles • 11 Tottenham Court Road 



1 



BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN IV 

and assembler 
in one timesharing system. 




Yes, the price is printed correctly even though a computer system with these capabilities might be 
expected to cost ten times as much. □ The surprising power of this computer system comes from 
a remarkable new software operating system called ETOS (EDUCOMP's Timesharing 
Operating System) developed by Educomp Corporation. Using this system, a batch 
stream may be running from a card reader with output going to a line printer 
while simultaneously numerous other users may be running timesharing 
jobs from their individual terminals in BASIC, FORTRAN IV, 
COBOL, or Assembler Language. Or they may be using the 
system's powerful editor to create and modify data files. 
And, through the unique virtual memory technique 
employed by ETOS, each user may access up to 
32K words of memory. □ While ETOS is 



sophisticated and powerful, it is also reliable 
and easy to use. Reliability is assured because 
ETOS is built around Digital Equipment 
Corp's dependable PDP-8 series computers 
and peripherals. Its ease of operation means 
that the system can run all day virtually 
unattended. □ At Educomp, we know 
educational computer systems. They're our 
only business. You're welcome to call on and 
talk to any one or all of our 100 plus satisfied 
customers. □ In addition to ETOS, we have 
single-user BASIC systems for under $5700 
complete, timesharing systems, and an 
incredibly comprehensive general-purpose 
data retrival system called GPRS. □ Please 
write or call Ron Cerri or Bob Enders with 
your educational computing requirements. 
You may specify your area of special interest 
or let us help you define your requirements. 



educomp 

corporation I 



corporation 

196 Trumbull Street, Hartford, CT 06103, (203) 728-6777 

Educomp Corporation 

196 Trumbull Street 
Hartford, CT 06103 

Please send information on □ ETOS, □ GPRS, 

□ Educomp BASIC, □ COBOL, 

□ Complete Educational Computer Systems, 

□ Other 



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■i 



= MOST VALUABLE KNOWLEDGE 
THAT YOU CAN HAVE 

is knowledge about the future— 
and it's more available than most people think. 



Recent Articles from 
THE FUTURIST 

"Education for Tomorrow's World" 

by Harold Shane 

"Tomorrow's Reform Agenda" 

by Arthur B. Shostak 

"Man-Woman Relationships in the Future" 

by Herbert Otto 

"Assessing the Paths to Peace" 

by Elliott Frauenglass 

"Energy Sources for the Future" 

by Earl Cook 

"The Family as an Agent of Social Change" 

by Elise Boulding 

"An Overview of World Trends" 

by Lester R. Brown 



NO ONE CAN KNOW exactly what will 
happen tomorrow, but many thoughtful individuals 
from all professions are making a conceited effort 
to understand and forecast future social and 
technological developments. 

Their forecasts and ideas now are easily and 
conveniently available in THE FUTURIST, an 
exciting bimonthly magazine that specializes in 
keeping people informed about what may happen 
in the years ahead. By reading THE FUTURIST 
you will know about forthcoming developments 
and be better prepared to deal successfully with 
our rapidly changing world. 

We are so confident that you will enjoy reading 
THE FUTURIST as well as benefit from it that 
we would like to send you a free copy so that you 
can see for yourself. 



H 



FUTURIST 




is published by the 

World Future Society: An Association for the Study of Alternative Futures 

The Society is a nonprofit educational and scientific organization founded in 1966. Articles in Society 
publications reflect the views of their" authors or persons quoted. The Society acts as an impartial clear- 
inghouse for a variety of different views and does not take positions on what will happen or should hap- 
pen in the future. 



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THE FUTURIST 

Dept. K 

4916 St. Elmo Avenue (Bethesda) 

^^V^T^^cantat issue of THE FUTURIST, which I understand 
is mine to keep regardless of whether I subscribe You may bill me for a one 
year's subscription; but if I am not completely satisfied with my first issue I can 
return your bill marked "please cancel" within 30 days and owe nothing. 
Please check* 

□ I'm ready to subscribe now. Enclosed is.$12 for a one year's subscription 
plus an extra issue as a bonus for sending cash. If I am not 100% satisfied with 
my first copy of THE FUTURIST, I understand that I can let you know in 30 
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Volume 1 Number 4 



Editor-in-chief and Publisher 
David H. Ahl 

Higher Education Editor 

A. Kent Morton, Dartmouth College 

• 

Problems Editor 

Walter Koetke, Lexington High School 

Reviews Editor 

Lynn Yarbrough, Lexington, MA 

Technology Editors 
John J. Judge, Queens Village, NY 
Tom R. Kibler, Atlanta, GA 
Alan B. Salisbury, Eatontown, NJ 
James S. Vinson, Univ. of NC 

Interviews Editors 

Karl L. Zinn, Univ. of Michigan 

Carol Schaake, Potomac, MD 

Careers Editors 

Eleanor Corr, Keystone Jr. College, PA 
Peter Dillon, Central Ct. State College 
George Fischer, Staten Island, NY 

Elementary School Editors 

David G. Hannay, Russell Sage College, NY 

Peg Pulliam, Lexington Public Schools, MA 

Contributing Editors 

Bob McElwain, Sylmar, CA 

W. David Malcolm, Jr., Acton, MA 

Games Editors 

Mary T. Dobbs, Glen Allen, VA 

Ted C. Park, Pacific-Union College, CA 

Business Staff 

Jane Fletcher, Los Angeles, CA 
Andree Stone, Concord, MA 
Carol Tick, Bernardsville, NJ 



In This Issue of 
CREATIVE 
COMPUTING 



ARTICLES 

PILOT-73 Information Exchange 

Playing PONG to Win 

Relativity for Computers 

Mr. Spock's 7th Sense 

Computers and the Weather 

Computer Simulation of the Atmosphere 

Dynamic Modelling using FORTRAN IV 

Structured Programming 

Trends in Mathematics Curriculum Research 



PERSONALITY 



Nolan Bushnell 
Nicholas Copernicus 



THINGS TO DO 

Follow-up on Palindromes 
Aedi, Mutab, Neda, and Sogal 
Puzzles and Problems for Fun 
ESCAPE - A New Simulation 
The Automobile and Air Pollution 

COMPUTER GAMES 

SPLAT - Parachute Jump 

GEOWAR - Seek and Destroy 

ICBM — Intercept a Missile 

LUNAR - Land a LEM on the Moon 

SEAWAR - Command a Fleet of Ships 

SUPER STAR TREK - Fight Klingon Invaders 

FOOLISHNESS 

City of the Future 

Time and again, and overtime 

Genesis (Release 2.5) 



Order Blank 
Input/Output 
Editorial 
Contest 



DEPARTMENTS 

4 Poster 

5 Reviews 

8 Feature Review 
35 (34 books on BASIC) 

THE COVER 



24 
25 
34 
47 
49 
51 
59 
62 
64 



24 
28 



18 
21 
23 
29 
54 



9 
10 
12 
26 
32 
40 



13 
19 
36 



38 
70 
72 



The cover of this issue is by Marilyn Clark and is titled "Lost 
World". The original medium is charcoal and our reproduction is 
approximately full size. 

After graduating from Penn State with a BA in English, 
Marilyn worked for McGraw-Hill and SRI. For the last 10 years she 
has been a consultant/programmer in the Computer Center User 
Services group at the University of California, San Francisco. She is 
active with Friends of the Earth, the Sierra Club, Zero Population 
Growth and, in her own words, reads a "wide variety of left-wing 
and liberal magazines and newspapers." 

She would like to do more art and writing, but she finds 
consulting with student programmers mind stretching and fulfilling. 
She eats nothing out of a can, is serious about the world, but has a 
sparkle in her eye, and enjoys life. 

CREATIVE COMPUTING is published bi-monthly by Ideametrics, 
P. O. Box 789-M, Morristown, NJ 07960. Third class postage paid at 
Morristown, NJ. Subscriptions: Institutional 1 -year $15, 3-year $40; 
Individual 1-year $8, 3-year$21; Student 1-year $6, 3-year $16. 
Foreign postage $1.50 per year additional. Single copies $1.50. 
Copyright © 1975 by Ideametrics. All rights reserved. Printed in 
USA. Second class permit applied for at Morristown, NJ. 



MAY-JUNE 1975 



3 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




Earn Extra Money 
in Your Spare Time 



READERS! We need more subscribers so we can 
financially break even, and then increase the size of 
Creative Computing. We can advertise but that 
costs more than it brings in. We can buy mailing 
lists and send out flyers, but good lists are hard to 
come by. There are other approaches, but the cost 
is generally higher than the payoff. 
• So we're coming to you readers, because we feel 
that your friends are the most likely new sub- 
scribers. We know you love us and you'd be happy 
to work for us for nothing, however, we're not 
asking that. We're going to pay you for your 
efforts. Here's the deal: 

1. We'll pay you a 15% commission on the 
subscriptions you bring in. 

2. Minimum of five subscriptions per order. 

3. Payment must be enclosed with order (we 
can't possibly afford to send out bills on this 
deal.) 

For example, say you get the following six 
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15% 
Commission 

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6.00 

$15.90 



You would send us six completed subscription 
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By return mail, you'll receive our check for 
$15.90. 

Remember: don't send in fewer than 5 subscrip- 
tions, do enclose payment with the order, and do 
include your name and address. (One of the five 
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Zip Code. It is VITAL. All our files are kep in zip 
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Input/ Output 




Dear Editor: 

I think you should stick to "standard" BASIC in 
programs that are included in CREATIVE COMPUTING. In 
volume 1, number 2, there were programs on pages 12, 13, 
and 1 9 that use the backslash for multiple statements on a 
line. The one on page 19 also has some construction that 
looks like Fortran implied do loops in a print line and 
if-then-else with statements allowed as arguments. It is 
honestly not BASIC and will probably only run on the 
machine that originated it. The use of an output string in an 
input statement (e.g. INPUT "YOUR MESSAGE PLEASE" 
A$) is also nonstandard. Sorry to push the point so hard, 
particularly on one of your own programs, but I think that 
programming style is pretty important, especially in 
publications that lots of people are going to see. The 
language you choose is an important part of style, and 
encouraging weird extensions that don't conform to the 
spirit of a language is poor style. 

Christopher G. Hoogendyk 
Dartmouth College 

/ agree with you in spirit; however, when a significant 
or interesting program is submitted to us (for example, 
SUPER STAR TREK in this issue), should we not publish it 
because it is not in standard BASIC? Or should we require 
the submitter to convert it to "standard" BASIC (to which 
most contributors would reply, "Why should I bother?*'). 
Or should we convert it to standard BASIC (at which 
request, most of our volunteer editors would find other 
things to do). Or should we publish it and leave it as an 
exercise for readers to convert? 

READERS: What do you think? 

Parting note: to my knowledge, the BASIC Standards 
Committee has not yet defined "standard" BASIC. - DHA. 



Dear Editor: 

The Summer 1975 Conference of ADCIS, the Associa- 
tion for the Development of Computer-Based Instructional 
Systems, will take place on August 5, 6, and 7. The host 
institution will be the University of Maine Portland- 
Gorham. Further and more detailed information about the 
Program and the Call for Participation may be obtained 
from: 

Dr. Martin Kamp, Info. Systems 
San Francisco Medical Center 
Unviersity of California 
San Francisco, CA 94143 

Alan G. Smith 

Dear Editor: 

As the former Systems Programmer for the Long Island 
Regional Instructional Computer Services (LIRICS) I am 
well aware of the problem of students compromising 
software security. (Editorial, Jan-Feb 1975) At LIRICS we 
had to deal with all three types of security breachers 
described by Mr. Tagg in over 60 school districts. 

Students who discovered ways to breach system 
security and reported it to me without using it were 
thanked. Such students saved many man-hours of blind 
searching which would have been required had a malicious 
user discovered the problem. 

Students that discovered but did not use or report 
problems were ignored since we could not track them down 
anyway. 

Students who used holes in the software security to 
disrupt oi r operation in any manner were attacked from 
two directions. Management attacked with a seek and 
destroy type inquiry while software people attacked with 
rigged controls and monitoring. 

We believe our method of dealing with these students 
was successful. I would suggest that educational institutions 
encourage experimentation but attack malicious students 
with a determined and sneaky software specialist. 

Harold R. Berenson 
, Syosset, New York 

Dear Editor: 

Thanks again for a superb issue of Creative Computing. 
I'm sure that you can't keep up the pace on improvement 
because there just isn't that much room to go. This is the 
best journal for my purposes that I have ever seen. 

There is one thing that I'd like to point out in relation 
to that historical reprint from IBM [Digital Calculators — 
Then and Now. Jan-Feb 1975]. In an article called "Will 
the Inventor of the First Digital Computer Please Stand 
Up?" W. David Gardner reports on the work of Dr. John 
Vincent Atanasoff for Datamation (Feb., 1974, pp. 84-90). 
The article gives the decision of Federal District Court 
Judge Earl R. Larson which "defrocked Dr. J. Presper 
Eckert and Dr. John W. Mauchly as the high priests of 
electronic digital computer invention." It goes on to 
explain how the decision arose in a case involving Sperry 
Rand and Honeywell over the patent of ENIAC. After 
carefully considering the evidence, Judge Larson decided 
that the patent was invalid because the basic ideas were 
taken from a machine which Atanasoff developed between 
1935 and 1942 at the University of Iowa. Atanasoff has 
gone without proper credit long enough (and besides too 
many people have the idea that nothing important but 
agriculture happens out here on the plains). 

Paul J. Emmerich 
Dana College 



MAY-JUNE 1975 



5 



The Sinclair Scientific just made 

slide rules obsolete. 

(Logs, trig, arithmetic. Scientific notation, too.) 



The Sinclair Scientific is the only 
pocket calculator that offers scientific 
capacity at a truly affordable price. 
And look how much you get: 

log and anti-log (base 10) 

sin and arcsin 

cos and arccos 

tan and arctan 

automatic squaring 

automatic doubling 

xy, including square and 
other roots 

four basic arithmetic 
functions 

plus scientific notation 
(10-^tol0+^). 
All for an incredibly low price. 

What makes a scientific 
calculator scientific? 

To be a really valuable tool for 
engineers, scientists, technicians and 
students, a calculator must provide all 
of the above. 

Clearly, a scientific calculator 
without scientific notation severely 
limits the size of numbers with which 
you can work easily. 

And scientific notation without 
transcendental functions is little more 
than window dressing on an arithmetic 
calculator. 

Granted, there are companies other 
than Sinclair offering excellent units 
with all the essential ingredients. 

But they sell at much higher prices. 

What's more, the Sinclair Scientific 
isn't just portable. It's pocketable. 

Less than 3 /4-inch thin. And 3 3 /4- 



Specifications 

Functions: 

4 arithmetic 
2 logarithmic 
6 trigonometric 

Keyboard: 
18 key format with 
4 "triple-action" 
function keys using 
standard, upper and 
lower case operation. 

Display: 
5-digit mantissa 
2-digit exponent 
(both signable) 

Exponent: 

200-decade range, 

from 10 - 99 to 
10 + 99 



Logic: 

Reverse Polish, with 
post-fixed operators 
for full flow chain 
calculations. 

Power Source: 
Battery operated with 
4 inexpensive AAA 
penlight batteries, 
providing over 25 
hours of use. 

Size: 
43/ 8 " high; 
2" wide; n/ie" thick. 

Weight: 

3 3 /4 oz. 

Warranty: 

1 year. 




Scientific 



trad 
In 10 
e 

IT 



57-2958 # 
2-30259 
2 71828 
3-14159 




▼ arccos 



actual size 

ounces light. It's the world's thinnest, 
lightest scientific calculator. 

What makes the Sinclair 
Scientific so inexpensive? 

Two important technological 
breakthroughs. 



First, the British-built Sinclair 
Scientific has a single integrated circuit. 
Engineered by Sinclair. 

Second, Sinclair's exclusive 
keyboard has only four function keys. 
All of which provide "triple-action" by 
changing from standard to upper or 
lower case mode. 

Old hands at small miracles. 

Sinclair has been an innovator in 
calculator miniaturization right from 
the start. 

In the last two years Sinclair brought 
to America the Sinclair Executive and 
Executive Memory — the world's 
thinnest, lightest calculators — as well 
as the Cambridge. 

The Sinclair Scientific is backed by 
an unconditional one-year replacement 
warranty. 

Sinclair also maintains a service-by- 
return mail operation in the U.S. (and 
everywhere else in the world) to handle 
any product problems. 

How to get your 
Sinclair Scientific. 

By special arrangement, readers 
of this publication may order the Sinclair 
Scientific directly. Just use the coupon 
below, and we will rush your calculator 
to you (at our unbeatable price) by 
return mail. 




SCIENTIFIC 

The logical choice. 



r 
i 
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ORDER FORM 

To: POLYTRONIX, Dept. CC-1 
14 East 28th Street, Suite 324 
New York, New York 10016 



CC-1 



1 
I 
I 



Please send me Sinclair Scientific Calculators at $49.95 each (add $3.50 per unit 

— . „ ,. 4 ~ O I _1 1 • v A « 1 a « • •.«• . 



I 
I 
I 
I 

L 



— — - — T -m^vm-mrmm y » u u af V • V V V M. Ullli 

postage & handling). All units shipped with batteries, carrying case, instruction book 

and warranty. Enclosed is my check or money order for $ (For immediate 

delivery please forward Cashiers Check. Please allow 2 weeks for delivery if personal 
check is enclosed. New York residents please add sales tax.) 



Name. 



Address. 



City. 



State. 



Zip Code. 



IF NOT COM- 
PLETELY SATIS- 
FIED, I MAY 
RETURN THE 
CALCULATOR 
FOR REFUND 
WITHIN SEVEN 
DAYS. 



I 
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J 



T-Shirt Design Contest 
Win BIG $ ! 

Just imagine the startled looks on the faces of 
your friends when you show up at MacDonald's 
wearing your Creative Computing sweatshirt. Wow! 
Ducking into a nearby phone booth you remove it 
to reveal your Creative Computing T-shirt under- 
neath. Double Wow!! 

Just imagine our problem trying to find a 
sweatshirt /T-shirt design that reflects our light- 
hearted approach to computers. What should it be? 
A computer monster? A monster computer? A 
hopped-up computer hot rod? A computer on a 
high? A computer playing games (heh, heh, heh)? 
A creative computer creating a creative computer? 
A creating computer creating computer create — 
bleep-bleep-bleep - [The editor creating this 
announcement just blew an IC so I'll finish — The 
Other Editor] 

Creative Computing will pay $25 (yes, twenty- 
five dollars) for the best T-shirt design submitted 
to us by July 18, 1975. Runners up will get $10 
prizes! Designs should be black and white, ink or 
paint (not pencil or charcoal), and approximately 
square. The final design will be reduced to about 
10" x 10" so if you do it larger, remember that 
detail will be lost in the reduction. Entries cannot 
be returned. Entries will be acknowledged only if 
accompanied by a self-addressed stamped envelope. 
If you want your entry kept flat, mark the outside 
envelope with LARGE letters "DO NOT FOLD 
OR BEND". Otherwise the Morristown Post Office 
will manage to put in our 3" x 5" box. 

DON'T WAIT. DO IT TODAY. And then send 
your design or designs to : 

T-Shirt Contest 
Creative Computing 
P.O. Box 789-M 
Morristown, New Jersey 07960 



CREATIVE 
COMPUTING 

Editorial 



? 




Where Are We Going? 

One evening last July, I was lying on my back on the 
esplanade next to the Charles River. The strains of a Mozart 
piano concerto by the Boston Pops filled the air. The night 
was particularly clear and the stars in the moonless sky 
were glittering like diamonds on a piece of black velvet. 
Counting the stars that could be seen with the naked eye 
in even one small sector of the sky would have been an 
absolute impossibility. 

The entire vista recalled to mind a statement from the 
Project Cyclops* report. It stated that scores of other 
intelligent races are radiating communication signals that 
can be received on Earth. This should come as no surprise. 
Given the incredibly vast numbers of galaxy clusters, 
galaxies, stars and solar systems, the probability of other 
races of superior intelligence or in a considerably advanced 
evolutionary state to humans is literally astronomical. 

Entering the realm of speculation, it is quite possible 
that we on Earth have been observed by another race and 
ignored much as you or I might view a slug or an ant. The 
number of cells in the brain of a slug indicate that it has 
virtually no intelligence whatsoever and who in their right 
mind would want to communicate with such a hideous, 
slimy creature anyway? Is there any reason to believe that 
we humans haven't been examined by some extraterrestrial 
race (the Bermuda Triangle disappearances?) and then been 
discarded as too barbaric and dumb to communicate with 
and too revolting and ugly to worry about anyway? 

Consider the human species for a moment. Over the 
some odd thousand years of recorded history, the human 
race has made enormous gains in technology. No question 




about that. It's curious, however, that there have been 
virtually no corresponding gains in interpersonal relation- 
ships. Nations still war with one another as do states, 
neighbors, and husbands and wives. 

To an extraterrestrial, our advanced technology prob- 
ably looks like cute little toys for the human ants to play 
with. But fundamentally, all the technology of the past 
2000 years hasn't altered the native intelligence and 
conduct of the species one iota. We still war with one 
another and lash out at those closest to us. Will computers 
help? What can we expect from our association with these 
logical companions? I have to believe that computers give 
us more potential to extend our intellect than we've ever 
had before. However, if we take history into account, I 
can't be overly sanguine about the outcome. 

If there's a message in ail of this I guess it's got to be: 
"STOP and THINK for a minute. What are the goals of the 
human race? Where should we be going as a species? Are 
you, you personally, contributing to that goal? In the 24 
hours just past, what percentage of the time were you really 
using your intelligence to the fullest and what percentage 
were you a human ant responding to the myriad pressures 
of job, family, school, or society? Why not take 10 minutes 
a week (one-tenth of one percent of the time in a week) to 
ponder humankind on a galactic scale? You might be 
surprised at the outcome!" 

David Ahl 

*Project Cyclops was an intensive 3-month study at Stanford to 
recommend an approach to search for extraterrestrial life. 



An aluminum plate was placed aboard the 
spacecraft "Pioneer 10' ' launched in March 1972. 
On it is etched a message designed to tell any 
interstellar finder that there is intelligent life on 
this planet. "Pioneer 10' ' is destined to fly-by 
Jupiter and continue into outer space. Earth 
scientists are hoping this will bring some 
response one day. 




8 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Another new game from Creative Computing . . 

SPLAT 



OPEN A PARACHUTE AT THE LAST MOMENT 

by John F. Yegge 
Oak Ridge Associated Universities 

SPLAT simulates a parachute jump in which you try to 
open your parachute at the last possible moment without 
going splat! You may select your own terminal velocity or 
let the computer do it for you. You may also select the 
acceleration due to gravity or, again, let the computer do it 
in which case you might wind up on any of the eight 
planets (out to Neptune), the moon, or sun. 

The computer then tells you the height you're jumping 
from and asks for the seconds of free fall. It then divides 
your free fall time into eight intervals and gives you 
progress reports on your way down. The computer also 
keeps track of all prior jumps in the file PARACHUTE and 
lets you know how you compared with previous successful 
jumps. You can easily convert SPLAT to your. version of 
BASIC by eliminating the file which keeps track of previous 
jumps although if you have file capabilities, use them — the 
game is that much more fun! 



OPEN "PARACH.UTE" 
DIM fix,A(4a<aa) 

RANDOMIZE 
PRINT "WELCOME TO 
PRINT "JUMP. TRy 



AS FILE IX 




'SPLAT' — THE CAME THAT SIMULATES A PARACHUTE" 
TO OPEN YOUR CHUTE AT THE LAST POSSIBLE" 



A1S 



30 
40 
59 
95 
96 

97 PRINT "MOMENT WITHOUT GOING SPLAT." 

118 PrINt\PrINt\D1«0W"0\A«0\N»0\M.0\O1 "INT (9001 *RNO(l)*i000) 

119 PRINT " SELECT YOUR OWN TERMINAL VELOCITY (YES OR N0)"lUNPUT 

120 IF AlS«"N0" TMEN 126 ELSE IF A1I»»yES» THEN 123 

121 PrINt "'YES' Or 'NO' PLEAsE" I \INPuT AiS\G0T0 120 
123 PRINT "WHAT TERMINAL VELOCITY (MI/HR) " IVINPUT VI 

125 V 1«V1* (5260/3600) \V«Vi*(( VI ♦»ND(0))/20}-(( VI •RND(0))/20)\GOTO 135 
128 V1»INT(1000*RNO(0}) 

PRINT "OK, TERMINAL VELOCITY ."Vi"MI/HR" 
VI»V1*(5280/3600)W«V1*((V1*RND(0) W20)»((Vl*RND(0))/20) 

PRINT "WANT TO SELECT ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY (YES OR N0)"| 
INPUT BlS 

IF B1$«"N0" THEN 150 ELSE IF Bl$«"YES" THEN 143 / 
PRINT "«YESi OR «N0i PLEASE" I MNPUT BtS\G0T0 140 
PRINT "WHAT ACCELERATION (FT/SEC /SEC )" I \ INPUT A2 
A«A2*((A2*RND(0))/20)-((A2*WND(0))/20)SGOTO 205 

ON INT<l*(10*RND(0)))GOTOl51,152,l53,l54,l55,l56,i57,l58,l59,160 

Printline, you're on mercury, acceleration^. 2Ft/sec/sec"\gotoi6i 
print"alright, you're on venus. accelerat i0n«28 . 3 ft/sec/sec"\g0t0162 
print "then you're on earth. accelerat i 0n«32 . 1 6 ft/sec/sec " \g0t0 163 
printline. you're on the moon, accelerations. 15ft/8ec/sec"\g0t0 164 
print"al»ight. you'he on mars. accelerati0n«12.5ft/3ec/sec"\g0t0 165 
print"then you're on jupiter. accelerati0n«85.2ft/3ec/3ec"\g0t0 166 
printline. you're on saturn, accelerat ion-37 . 6ft/sec/sec "\00t0 167 
print" alright, you'he on uranus, accelerat i0n«33 , 8ft/sec/8ec "\g0t0 168 

PRINT"THEN YOU'HE On NEPTUNE, ACCELERATIONS. 6FT/SEC/SfcC"\GOT0 169 
PRINT-FINE. YOUiRE ON THE SUN, ACCELERATI0N«896FT/3EC/SEC«\GnT0 170 
A2«12,2\G0T0 14b 



WELCOME TO 'SPLAT* THE GAME THAT SIMULATES A PARACHUTE 
JUMP. TRY TO OPEN YOUR CHUTE AT THE LAST POSSIBLE 
MOMENT WITHOUT GOING SPLAT. 



SELECT YOUR OWN TERMINAL VELOCITY (YES OR NO)? NO 
OK. TERMINAL VELOCITY - 796 MI/HR 

WANT TO SELECT ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY <YES OR NO>? NO 
FINE. YOU'RE ON MERCURY. ACCELERATION- 12. 2FT/ SEC /SEC 

ALTITUDE • 9297 FT 

TERM. VELOCITY » 1167.47 FT /SEC +-5X 

ACCELERATION « 12.2 FT/SEC/SEC +-5X 

SET THE TIMER FOR YOUR FREEFALL. 
HOW MANY SECONDS? 8 
HERE WE GO. 



TIME (SEC) 



DIST TO FALL (FT) 



130 

131 
135 
136 
140 
141 
143 
145 
150 
151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 
156 
159 
160 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
205 
206 
207 
208 
210 
211 
215 
217 
218 
219 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 
360 
400 
405 
410 
420 
430 
440 
450 
500 
510 
530 

55« 
560 
570 
580 
600 
620 



A2>28.3\G0T0 145 

A2«32.16\G0T0 U5 
A2»5.15\G0T0 145 
A2«12.5\C0T0 146 
A2a85.2\G0T0 145 
A2»37.6\C0T0 145 
A2»33.8 \G0T0 Ms 
A2«39,6\GOT0 145 
A2»896VG0TO 145 
PRINT 

a 
•t 

H 

"SET 
"HQW 
"HEME 



\ 



ALTITUDE »"Dl"FT" 
TERM, VELOCITY ■»V1"FT/8EC ♦ -5X" 
ACCELERATION ■"A2"FT/SEC/SEC *-5X" 

THE TIMER FOR YoUR F«EEFALL." 
MANY SECqnDS">\InpUT T 
WE GO," 



(SEC)"»"DIST TO FALL (FT)" 







630 


0 


9297 


650 


1 


9290.88 


660 


2 


9272.51 


670 


3 


9241.89 


660 


4 


9199.02 


690 


5 


9143.91 


695 


6 


9076.55 


700 


7 


8996.94 


701 


S 


8905.09 


702 


CHUTE OPEN 




703 


CONSERVATIVE 


AREN'T YOU? YOU RANKED ONLY 9 IN THE 


710 



14 SUCCESSFUL JUMPS BEFORE YOURS. 
DO YOU WANT TO PLAY AGAIN? YES 



SELECT YOUR OWN TERMINAL VELOCITY (YES OR NO>? NO 
OK. TERMINAL VELOCITY « 740 MI/HR 

WANT TO SELECT ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY (YES OR NO) ? NO 
THEN YOU'RE ON NEPTUNE. ACCELERAT I ON" 39 • 6FT/SEC/SEC 

ALTITUDE * 5189 FT 

TERM. VELOCITY - 1085.33 FT/SEC + -5X 

ACCELERATION » 39.6 FT/SEC/SEC + -5X 

SET THE TIMER FOR YOUR FREEFALL. 
HOW MANY SECONDS? 18 
HERE WE GO. 



TIME (SEC) 



DIST TO FALL (FT) 



0 


5189 


2.25 


5089.74 


4.5 


4791.95 


6.75 


4295.63 


9 


3600.78 


1 1.25 


2707.4 


13.5 


1615.5 


15.75 


325.072 


16.2678 


SPLAT 



MAY THE ANGEL OF HEAVEN LEAD YOU INTO PARADISE 
I'LL GIVE YOU ANOTHER CHANCE. 
DO YOU WANT TO PLAY AGAIN? YES 



MAY-JUNE 1 975 



711 
712 
720 
721 
730 
731 
740 
741 
742 
750 
751 
752 
600 
801 
802 
803 
804 
805 
806 
807 

806 
809 
1000 
1005 
1010 
1020 
1950 
2000 
2001 
2002 
2003 
2005 
2007 
2046 
9999 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 

PRINT "TIME 

PRINT "■■•■■■•■■■","■■■■■■•■■•«•■■■■»" 

FOR I«0 TO T STEP (T/8) 
IF I>V/A GOTO 400 
D"Dl-( (A/2)*Ia2) 
IF D<«0 GOTO 1000 
PRINT i,D 
NEXT I 
GOTO 500 

PRINT "TERMINAL VELOCITY, REACHED AT T PLUS" V/ A"SECONDS" 
FOR I«I TO T STEP (T/8) 
D«D1-((Va2/(2*A))* ( V«(I-(V/A )))) 

IF D<«0 GOTO 1010 
PRINT I,D 
NEXT I 

goto 500 

print "Chute open" 

K"0\K1«0 
FOR III TO 4000 
IF A(I)*0 GOTO 620 
MK*l 

IF D>»A(I) GOTO 600 
K1»KW1 
NEXT I 
A(I)«D 

IF K«KW«.1*K GOTO 700 
IF K-K1<b,25*K GOTO 710 
IF K-K1<b,5*K GOTO 720 
IF K-Rl<«.76*K GOTO 730 
IF K-K1<«.9*K GOTO 740 
GOTO 750 

PRINT "wOwl THAT'S SOME JUMPING. OF 
PRINT "BEFORE YOuRS, ONLY"K-K 1 "OPENED 
PRINT "YOU DID." 
GOTO 2000 

PRINT "PRETTY GOODI " K"SUCCESSFUL JUMPS PRECEDED 
PRINT K-Ki" oF THEM GOT LO*E« THA N YOU DID BEFpPE 
PRINT "OPENED," VGOTO 2000 

PRINT "NOT BAO, TmERE HAVE BEEn"K"SUCCESSFUL JUMPS BEFORE YOURS." 
PRINT"YOtl WERE BEATEN OUT BY"K-Kl"0F TMEM,"\60T0 2000 
PRINT "CONSERVATIVE AREN'T YOU? YOU RANKED ONLY"*-K 1 » I* THE" 
^SUCCESSFUL JUMPS BEFORE YOURS, "\G0T0 2000 
"HUMPH1 DON'T YOU HAVE ANY SPORTING BLOOD? THERE WERE" 
•("SUCCESSFUL JUMPS BEFORE YOURS AND YOU CAME I N»K 1 » JUMPS" 
"BETTER THAN THE WOK3T. SHAPE UP1M"\G0T0 200* 
"HEY 1 YOU PULLED THE RIP CORD MUC« TOO SOON, «K "SUCCESSFUL" 
"JUMPS BEFORE YOURS AND YOU CAME IN NUMBFR"K-K 1 « | GET WITH IT|" 
2000 . 



THE"K"SuCCES3FuL JUMPS" 
THEIR CHUTES LOwEB THAN" 



YOURS 
THEIR 



AND ONLY" 
CHUTES" 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
GOTO 



PRIN T "REGuIEaCAT I* PACE.«\G0t0 1950 

PrIN T "May THE ANGEL OF HEAyEN LEAD YOu INtO PArADIsE"\GOtO 1950 
rrINT "REST IN pEACE"\GoTO 1950 
PRINT "SON-0 F " A -GUN"\GoTO 1950 
PRINT "«$X14XJS"\G0T0 1950 

PRINT "A KICK IN THE PANTS IS A BOOST if YOU'RE HEADED RIghT"\G0T0 

print "hmmm, should have picked k shorter time."\goto 1950 

PRINT "MUTTER. MUTTER. MUTTER. "\G0T0 1950 
PRINT "PUSHING UP DAISIES. "SGOTO1950 
PRINT "EASY COME, EASY GO."\GOTO 1950 
PRINT SQR(2*Dl/A), "SPLAT" 

ON INT ( !♦ ( 10#RND(0) )) GOTO 800 , 691 , 802 $ 803, 804 , 805 , 806, 607 , 808 , 809 
PRINT (V/A)*((D1-(Va2/(2*A)))/V), "SPLAT" 
GOTO 1005 

PRINT "I'LL GIVE YOU ANOTHER CHANCE . "\G0T0 2000 
PRINT "DO YOU *ANT TO PLAY AGAIN" } \INPUT ZS 
IF ZS»"YES" GOTO 118 
IF Z$»"NO" GOTO 2005 
PRINT "YES OR nO"\GOTO 2000 

PRINT "PLEA3E")\INPUT Z$\IF ZS»"YES" THEN 118 ELSE 2007 
PRINT "SS338SSS3S.«\G0T0 2046 
CLOSE IX 

End 



1950 



Another new game from Creative Computing . . . 

GEOWAR 

No writeup was included with this game except, of 
course, the instructions and remarks in the listing. The idea 
and approach came from Kenneth Janowiak, a teacher at 
St. Patrick HS, Chicago. Programming was done by Gary 
Lorenc, a former student. (See the review of GEOWAR on 
the facing page.) 



PROGRAM LISTING 



1 REM *** GEOWAR 

2 RE* *•* WRITTEN BY CA*Y LORENC. IDE* BV KENNETH JANONXAK 

3 REM *** ST. PATRICK H8* B9BB W. BELMONT AVE,* CHICAGO, ILL 

4 REM UPDATED TO BASIC-PLUS BY DAVE AHL 

5 PRINT"00 YOU WANT A DESCRIPTION OP THE OAMEf (t-YES,S-N0) "P 

6 INPUT I 

7 IF X«B THEN 46 

8 PRINT 

9 PRINT" THE FIRST QUADRANT OF A REGULAR COORDINATE GRAPH WILL" I 
IB PRINT" SERVE AS" 

11 PRINT"TME BATTLEFIELD. FIVE ENEMY INSTALLATIONS ARE LOCATED "| 

12 PRINT"WITHIN A" 

13 PRINT"3P BY 3* UNIT AREA, NO TARGET IS INSIDE THE 10 BY 10 "I 

14 PRINT"UNIT AREA" 

15 PRINT" APJACFNT TO THE ORIGIN, AS THIS IS THE LOCATION OP OUR "I 

16 PRI NT " B ASF , WHEN" 

17 PRINT "THE MACHINE ASKS FOR THF DEGREE OP THE SHOT, RESPOND "I 

18 PRINT"hITH A NUMBER" 

19 PBINT"RETWfcF> l AND 90." 

20 PRINT 

21 PRINT TAFK51) , "SCARE**********" 

22 PRINT" 1. A DIRECT MIT IS A MIT WITHIN 1 DEGREE 0F"> 

23 PRINT TABf51),"* *" 

24 PRINT" THE TARGET. ",TABf51),"* HIT****** *" 

25 PRINT" 2. A HIT MUST PASS PETwFEN THF PIPST SET OF"l 

26 PRINT TAbf&l)."* * * *" 

27 PRIM" INTEGRAL POINTS N* AND SE PF T H E TARGET."! 

28 PRINT TABf&l)."* * D * *" 

29 PPINT" 3. A SCARE *UST PASS P E T w F E N THE NEXT SET OF»| 
3? RPIK'T TABf5P#"* * * *" 

31 ppint" integral poimts m* and sf of the target, "i 

32 PPINT TAH(M),"* ******HIT *" 

33 PRINT" AND CAUSES YWt E NE M V TD RELOCATE A "f 

34 PRINT TAR (61 ) ."* * H 

35 PRPT" M AXI»L'M OF 1 UNIT TN ANY DIRECTION. "I 
3b PPIM TABf 51 ) . "**********SCARF" 

37 PPIM 

38 PRI»-T 

39 PPINT" MSSILES MAVE I W FTMTF PAMGF AMD may hit mqpe THAN «j 

40 PRIM"0^ TARGET." 

41 pfcT*T«A "ISSUE THAT NEARLY MTSSES AN INSTALLATION fA SCARE) "I 

42 p R I N T " >■ T L I *£* 

43 PRINT"IMMFDIATfcl.V SHOT DOWN. AMY, HITS RfFOPE THIS TIME wlLL "I 

44 RRI^'T "NOT HF COUNTEft" 

45 PR1* ! T"L^LESS A DIRECT nil "»S M40F," 

46 PP*I»iT 

47 PRINT 

48 PRINT "RE AD V TO GO? (1-YES.0-NP) "J 
4 9 INPUT P? 

5.3 IF R2«? TMfcN 19? 

51 print "r.ron i io i « 

52 PRIM 

53 DTN CflP).Hf2»),0(l»).8f2«).Ff&l 

54 DEF FNVfVl )«lNTf ( 1 8"/ J . 1 4 1 50 ) * AT* ( v 1 ) ♦ .*) 

55 X«25P 

55 X1«RnP(X) 
57 G?»P 

56 S?"> 
59 D2«0 
63 h2«C 

61 FDR *•] TO IP 

62 GO S'JR 154 

63 IF !M(K/?)<>K/? THEN 7? 

64 IF C(K-1 )>10 TmFN 7C 

65 IF C(K)»1* THEN 70 

66 FOP L «K - 1 10 K 

67 GOSUd 1 S 4 

68 NEXT l 

69 GO TP 63 
7,} NPXT * 

71 S"«" 

72 FOR L«l TP * 

73 Da)«FNV(C(?*i )/Cf2*L-D) 

74 nF x T I 

75 A»2 

70 Ll«li: 

77 T5»* 

78 D»«P 

79 H!»«* 

8<) GO Sl<« 147 
Rl PRIM 

82 PRINT" EN TFR DEGREE OF 8*0T "» 

83 Olif 

84 Ml«e 

85 F OR 0«1 TO 5 

86 FfOWC 

87 NEXT 0 

88 INPUT 0 

89 IF 0>»9p THEN 81 

93 IF P<P« THFN 177 ELSE IF D»0 THEN 192 

91 S»S*1 

92 FOP A«? TO IP STEP ? 

93 IF 0>S(A) THEN 103 

94 IF P<S(A-1) THEN H«3 

95 IF 0>H ( A ) THEN t P> S 

96 IF 0<W(A-1) THEN 105 



♦ 



N 



97 IF D>P(A/2)*i THEN 101 

98 IF D<D(A/2)-l THEN 1^1 

99 D1»D1*1 

00 GO TO 102 

01 H1«M*1 

02 FfPl*Ml)«A 

03 NEXT A 
44 GO TO 10* 

05 IF D1>0 THEN 118 

06 GO SUB 138 
1«7 GO TO fll 

08 IF DUHlop THEN 112 

09 IF T5»l THEN 159 

10 PRINT"NO LUCK — TRY AGAIN'." 

11 GO TO 81 

1? IF D1>0 THEN 118 

13 IF H 1 > 1 THFN 116 

14 PRTNT"**CONGRATULATlONS** A HIT," 

15 GO TO 124 

16 PRTNT«**C0NGRATULATI0NS**"|H1 |" HITS." 

17 GO TO 124 

IS PRINT»****RULLS EYF**** "| 

19 IF D1>1 THFN l?3 

20 IF H1>0 THFN 123 

21 PRINT" A DIRECT HITJ" 

22 GO TO 124 

23 PRINT D1*HU" HITS -- A DIRECT HIT ON"»Oil" OF THEM 1 " 

24 T5«T5-fDl*Hl) 

25 D5«D5*01 

26 H5»H5*Hi 

27 IF T5«0 THFN 167 

28 FOR J« 1 TO Hl*D1 

29 Z»F(J) 

30 0(Z/2)«P 

31 H(Z)«0 

32 H(Z-1)»0 

33 S(Z)«w 

34 S(7-l ) «rf 

35 NEXT J 

36 PRINT 5-T5I" DO^N — "}T5l" TO GO." 

37 GO TO 81 

38 PR I NT " A NEAR HIT. EnE«Y HAS RFLOC A TFD , " 

39 FOR R«l TO 2 

40 X2«INT( RNDf 0)*1k)0) 

41 IF ABS(C(A-(R-1))-*2)>1 THEN 140 

42 IF C(A-(R-1))<«2 THEN 1 40 

43 C(A-(R-1) )«X2 

44 NEXT R 

45 D(A/2)iFNVrCfA)/C(A-l)) ' 

46 L1«A 

47 FOR T ■ A TO L1 STEP 2 

48 H(I-1)«FNV((C(I)-1)/(C(I-1T*1 )> 

49 H(I)»FNv( (C(I)*l)/(C(I-l)-l)) 

50 8(1-1 )«FNV((C(I)-2)/(C(I-l)*P)> 

51 3(T)»FNV((C(I)*2)/(C(I-l)-2)) 

52 NEXT I 

53 RETURN 

54 R«INT(RND(0)*100) 

55 IF R>3« THEN 154 

56 IF R<3 THEN 154 

57 C(K)«R 

58 RETURN 

59 FOR Zl ■ 1 TP 5 

60 IF D(Z1)M THEN 162 

61 NEXT Zl 

62 IF D<D(Z1). THEN 165 

63 PRINT"T00 HIGH — TRY AGAIN," 

64 GO TO 81 

65 PRINT»TO0 LOW — TRY AGAIN," 

66 GO TO 81 

67 PRINT 

68 PRINT"GAHE TOTALSl " IH5I " HITS AND"ID5|" DIRECT HITS ON" I Si " SHOTS . " 

69 PRINT 

70 PRINT"READY FOR A NEW GAME? (1-YFS,0-NO) "| 

71 G2«G2*J 

72 S2«S2*S 

73 D2»D2*D5 

74 H2>H2*H5 

75 INPUT G 

76 IF G-B THEN 164 

77 PRINT . 

78 PRIN) 

79 PRINT 

80 PRINT'FIVE NEW INSTALLATIONS HAVE BEEN BUILT AT DIFFERENT "» 

81 PRINT"LOCATIONS." 

82 PRINT"G00D LUCKI" 

83 00 TO 61 

84 PRINT 

85 PRINT 

66 PRINT "TOTALS F0R"02"CAMES I "H2"HITS AN0»D2 

87 PRINT "DIRECT HITS 0N"S2"SH0T3.» 

88 PRINT "AN AVERAGE 0F»S2/(D2*H2) "SHOTS PER TARGET . " 
92 END 



SAMPLE RUN 



RUN 



D£ YSU WAivIT A DLSCPIPTI0N 0F THE lifiMEf (1-YES, O-N0) !1 

Ht FlhST QUADHANT 0F A REGULAR C0GRDINATE UPAW 'JILL SERVE AS 
THE BATTLEFIELD. FIVE ENEMY INSTALLATIONS ARE LOCATED WITHIN A 
30 BY 30 UNIT AHEA. N0 TARUET IS INSIDE THE 10 BY 10 UNIT AREA 
ADJACENT T0 THE 0RIGIN, AS THIS IS THE LOCATION 0F CUP BASE. WHEN 
THE MACHINE ASKS F0R THE DEGREE 0F THE SH0T, RESPOND WITH A NUMBER 
bETWEEN 1 AND 9 0. 



1. A DIRECT HIT IS A HIT WITHIN 1 DEGREE OF 

THE TARGET. 

2. A HIT MUST PASS BETWEEN THE FIRST SET 0F 

INTEGRAL PSINTS NW AND SE 0F THE TARGET. 

3. A SCARE MUST PASS bETWEEN THE NEXT SET 0F 

INTEGRAL P0INTS NW AND SE GF THE TARGET, 
AND CAUSES THE ENEMY T0 RELOCATE A 
MAXIMUM 0F 1 UNIT IN ANY DIRECTION. 



SCAPE********** 

* * 

* 4i T****** * 

4l * * * 

* * D * * 
mm * * 

* mmmm**Hl7 * 

* * 
********** SCAPE 



MISSILES HAVE INFINITE RANGE AND MAY HIT M0RE THAN 0NE TARGET. 

A MISSILE THAT NEARLY MISSES AN 1 1 N STALL ATI 0N (A SCAPE) WILL RE 

IMMEDIATELY SHOT DOWN. ANY HITS BEFORE THIS TIME WILL N0T RE COUNTED 
UNLESS A DIRECT HIT WAS MADE. 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



REaU/ TG G3? < 1-YES, O-N0) !1 
J£CL> LUCK ! 



ENTER DEGREE SF SK0T ! 20 
N0 LUCK TRY AGAIN. 

ENTER DEGREE 0F SW0T' ! 30 

A NEAR -<IT. EN M f HAS PEL0CATED. 

ENTER DEGREE £F SH0T !3l 

*«*«bULLS EYE**«* 3 HIT? -- A DIRECT HIT 0*1 

3 D£WN -- ? T0 G3. 



? 0F T-( Eil ! 



ENTER DEGREE ZF SHOT !<|0 
N0 LUCK TRY AGAIiv. 

ENTER DEGREE 0F S-tCT ! 50 
N0 LUCK -- TRY AGAIN. 



MOLTltlt HITS 

A*c *> oss tact 



ENTER DEGREE eF SKCT !60 
***«bULLS EYE**** 2 



HITS -- A DIRECT HIT 0N 
GAME T0TALS: 2 41 TS AND 

READf F0h A NE ; '' liA^E? (1-YES, O-M0) !1 



1 0F TWEM! 



3 DIRECT HITS 0M 6 SK3TS. 

(y*Mk* 1* EXXT it • ) 



FIVE NEW INSTALLATIONS HAVE BEEN BUILT AT DIFFERENT L0CATI0MS. 
G00D LUCK ! 

ENTER DEGREE 0F SH0T !45 

A NEAR HIT. ENEMY HAS REL0CATED. 

ENTER DEGREE 0F SH0T ! 44 

A NEAR HIT. ENEMY HAS REL0CATED. 



ENTER DEGREE 0F SH0T !3I 

A NEAR HIT. ENEMY HAS PEL0 CATED. 

ENTER DEGREE 0F SH0T ! 30 

**** BULLS EYE**** A DIRECT HIT! 

2 D0WN — 3 T0 G0. 

ENTER DEGREE 0F SH0T ! 25 

A NEAR HIT. ENEMY HAS REL0 CATED. 

ENTER DEGREE 0F SH0T '126 

A NEAR HIT. ENEMY HAS REL0 CATED. 

ENTER DEGREE 0F SH0T 127 

** C0NG RATUL ATI 0NS** A HIT. 

3 D0WN — 2 T0 G0. 

i 

ENTER DEGREE 0F SH0T !65 
**C0NG RATUL ATI 0NS** A HIT. 

4 D0WN — 1 T0 G0. 



ENTER DEGREE 0F SH0T !50 ' 
T00 L0W -- TRY AGAIN. 

ENTER DEGREE 0F SH0T 170 
T00 L0W TRY AGAIN. 

ENTER DEGREE 0F SH0T 18 0 

** C0NGRATULATI 0NS** A HIT. 



WGcP 6«V*>» OM CAM* SHOTS 
HI*** 



GAME T0TALS1 



4 HITS AND 



1 DIRECT HITS 0N 



28 SH0TS. 



READY F0R A NEW GAME? < 1-YES, O-N0) !0 

^ Torokcs m fcu- 

T0TALS F0R 2 GAMESi 6 HITS AND 4 DIRECT HITS 0N 34 SH0TS 

AN AVERAGE 0F 3.40 SH0TS PER TARGET 



REVIEW OF GEOWAR 

by Gregory Yob 

The editor of any publication has a dilemma. There's 
lots of material, but most of it is of low quality or presents 
the wrong viewpoint for his magazine. I am sure this is true 
of computer games as evidenced by the game of GEOWAR 
which was given to me by the editor of Creative Com- 
puting. As a dedicated games-lover, these comments are 
offered in the hopes for better games. In fact, please 
correspond with me if you share (or reject) my views. 

Let's get down to business. GEOWAR is another of 
those "shoot the enemy with missiles (phasers, lasers, 
zap-beams, MIRVS, etc.)" games. In some ways I liked it: in 
most I didn't. 

THE TECHNICAL LEVEL. Programming GEOWAR or an 
equivalent game requires a good knowledge of BASIC 
in many ways. Noted in the program were the uses of 
arrays, pointers, subroutines, library functions and a 
defined function. As a problem for a final exam (do 
the flowchart) GEOWAR is excellent. Writing and 
debugging GEOWAR is a fine term project for second- 
semester programming. 

THE LEVEL OF CLARITY. The instructions for GEO- 
WAR are muddled a bit. It took me two readings to 
understand the first quadrant instead of the full 360 
degrees was the playing area. I offer an improved 
diagram of the playing area (there wasn't any, a mortal 



90 DEGREES 
E 



30 ijAlITS- I 
I 

I E 
I 
I 
I 

10 JMI TS- I " * 
I 

I CLEAR * 
I £0.>JE \ 

rou — *========= 

10 
•JUI TS 



0 DEGREES 



3d 
UrtlTS 



Field of Play 



+SCARE+--+--+ 
t • t t t 

♦--HI T+==+ — ♦ 
• ! ! ! 



Scare/Hit Diagram 











t 


! ! 


! 


t 


♦ - 


-♦==♦= 


=+ - 













sin for tactical games) and a new version of the 
HIT-SCARE diagram (see figures). If you are to use a 
grid, show the points clearly!!! If your range of fire is 
limited, MAKE IT CLEAR!!! This is a usual case of 
pictures vs. kilowords. 

TUTORIAL LEVEL. What does GEOWAR teach? Possibly 
about angles . . . Mostly it is a game of guessing. 
Guessing strategies are very clearly done in STARS. In 
a sense, GEOWAR is a five-number version of STARS. 
Regarding angles, STAR TREK is much more effective 
and lots of fun! I notice the games authors live in 
Chicago. A visit to Urbana and a tour of the games on 
PLATO is well worth the effort. I particularly suggest 
MOONWAR, CONQUEST, NOVA and ROSE. MOON- 
WAR is the most effective angle-teacher I have ever 
met. (All other games lovers should also try PLATO. 
Try DOGFIGHT!) 

ESTHETIC AND PHILOSOPHICAL LEVEL. This is where 
I am most annoyed with GEOWAR. It's another hunt 
and kill game in an era where mutual co-operation in 
complex systems is a vital need. Missiles and cartesian 
grids are very common in computer games, and in 
writer's words, "the theme is a bit overdone". If we 
must teach of war, think about these situations: 

a) an Army Artillery unit 

b) a destroyer at sea 

c) a jet in a dogfight 

d) ICBMs (Minuteman, Polaris) 

In each situation, the techniques and objectives differ. 
Hitting the target is only a small part of the game. 
Many neat games ideas can come of these situations 
viewed as part of a larger system, i.e., the artillery unit 
as part of supporting a commando unit. 

WHAT I'D LIKE TO SEE: 

1) Games using several players in different and mutually 
dependent roles. 

Social, Economic and Ecological themes vs. War 
An interesting field of play (as in HUNT THE 
WUMPUS) with variations and topography 
The player's advantages to be the results of their 
actions, (the RND function is much over-used and 
often destroys the skill-learning aspects of a game) 



2) 
3) 

4) 



MAY-JUNE 1975 



11 



Another new game from Creative Computing . . 

ICBM 



by Paul Calter 
Vermont Technical College 

Your radar station picks up an enemy ICBM heading 
your way, telling you its coordinates (in miles north and 
miles east of your location). You launch a surface-to-air 
missile (SAM) to intercept it. 

Your only control over the SAM is that you can aim it 
in any direction, both at launch, and in mid-air. Using the 
coordinates of the ICBM as a guide, you INPUT the 
direction (measured CCW from North) in which you want 
the SAM to travel. 

At the next radar scan one minute later, you are given 
the new coordinates of the ICBM, the coordinates of your 
SAM, and the distance between the two. You can now 
make corrections in the course of your SAM by entering a 
new direction. 

You have no control over the altitude of your SAM, as 
it is assumed that it will seek the same altitude as the ICBM. 

As the two missiles draw closer, you make adjustments 
in the direction of the SAM so as to intercept the ICBM. 
It's not easy to hit, because the ICBM is programmed to 
make evasive maneuvers, by taking random deviations from 
the straight line course to your location. Also, its speed is 
not known, although it does not vary after being randomly 
selected at the start of the run. 

You can destroy the ICBM by coming within 5 miles of 
it, at which time your SAM's heat-seeking sensors will 
come into action and direct it to its target. If you overshoot 
the ICBM it's possible to turn the SAM around and chase 
the ICBM back towards your location. But be careful; you 
may get both missiles in your lap. 

There is also some element of chance involved, as" 
several accidents have been programmed to occur random- 
ly. These can work for you or against you. 

Some ways to improve and expand the program are: 

1. Operator control over SAM speed: In the present 
version the speed of the SAM is randomly selected by the 
computer at the start of the run, and remains constant 
thereafter. This often results in overshooting the ICBM. 
Modify the program so that you can input a new speed 
(within limits) at the same time you input the new 
direction. 



... six 



...five 



...four 







. . . two 



. . . one 



...fire 







• - - - S AM - -- -- -- •» 



2. Three dimensional version: Have the computer print 
the altitude of the ICBM, as well as its coordinates. The 
operator will then have to INPUT the angle his SAM is to 
make with the horizontal, when entering the other quanti- 
ties. 

3. Extend to all Quadrants. In the present version, the 
ICBM approaches only from the Northeast. You can 
expand this to include approach from any compass direc- 
tion. 

This game is derived from a program submitted by 
Chris Falco, of Glen Ridge High School, NJ. 

im randomise PROGRAM LISTING 

110 LET Xl-3 
133 LET Yl»3 

133 LET K« INT CRND*533>*230 
140 LET Y«INTCRND*633>*233 
153 LET S-INT(RND*23*50> 
1*0 LET S1»IMT<RND*23*53> 

173 PRINT"--' MI SSLE 

113 PRINT "MILES". "MILES". **MILES"» "MILES". "HEADING" 
190 PRINT "NORTH". "EAST". "NORTH". "EAST"."?" 

230 PRINT — — — - . 

213 FOR N»l TO S3 
220 PRINT Y. X# Yl. XI, 
230 IE X«0 THEN 550 
240 INPUT Tl 
250 LET Tl-Tl'57.296 
260 LET H"IMT<RND*200*|> 
270 IF H>4 THEN 290 
290 ON H 30 TQ 470.490.513.530 
290 LET X1.INT<XI*S1*SIM<T1>> 
300 LET Yl-IMT<Yl*Sl*C05<Tf>> 
310 IF 59R<X»2*Y»2>»5 THEN 350 
320 LET X«3 
330 LET Y-0 
340 00 TO 433 

350 LET R"SQR(X»2*T»2>/ .000 
350 LET T«ATN<Y/X> 

370 LET X-INTCX-5*COS<T>*RND*20*R> 
350 LET Y>INT<Y-S*SIN(T>«RND*20«R> 
193 LET O«S0R(<X-Xl)»2»<y-ri)t2) 
433 IF D»<5 THEN 440 
410 LET O-INT(O) 

420 PRINT "ICBM ft SAM N0W"l Dl " MILES APART" 
430 NEXT N 

440 PRINT ••CONGRATULATIONS! YOUR SAM CAME WI THING"! 01 "MILES OF" 
450 PRINT "THE ICBM AND DESTROYED IT." 
460 00 TO 560 

•70 PRINT "TOO BAD. YOUR SAM FELL TO THE GROUND" 
♦50 GO TO 560 

490 PRINT^OUR SAN EXPLODED IN MIDAIR" 
530 GO TO 560 

510 PRINT "GOOD LUCK- THE ICBM EXPLODED HARMLESSLY IN MID-AIR" 
530 30 TQ 560 

530 PRINT "GOOD LUCK-THE ICBM TURNED OUT TO BE A FRIENDLY AIRCRAFT" 
540 GO TQ 560 

550 PRINT "TOO BAD! THE ICBM JUST HIT YOUR LOCATION" 
560 PRINT"D0 YOU WANT TO PLAY MORE? <Y OR N>" 
570 INPUT AS 
550 IF AS-"Y" THEN 130 
590 END 
READY 



ICBM 



35 J4N 75 



SAMPLE RUN 



■NISSLE- 



•SAN* 



MILES 




MILES 




MILES 


MILES 


HEADING 


NORTH 




BAST 






NORTH 


1AST 


? 




557 




565 






0 


• 


7 


60 


ICBM ft 


SAM NOW 


946 


MILES 


APART 








565 




632 






29 


50 


? 


68 


ICBM * 


SAM NOW 


559 


MILES 


APART 








554 




632 






56 


130 


? 


55 


ICBM « 


SAM NOV 


761 


MILES 


APART 








525 




773 






91 


147 


? 


60 


ICBM 4 


SAM NOW 


667 


MILES 


4P4RT 








512 




737 






120 


197 


? 


60 


ICBM 1 


SAM NOW 


569 


MILES 


APART 








493 




731 






149 


247 


7 


55 


ICBM ft 


SAM NOW 


470 


MILES 


APART . 








467 




668 






158 


294 


? 


65 


ICBM ft 


SAM NOW 


367 


MILES 


APART 








436 




635 






215 


341 


? 


X55 


ICBM ft 


SAM NOW 


271 


MILES 


APART 








420 




595 






245 


398 


? 


57 


ICBM ft 


SAM MOW 


171 


MILES 


APART 








392 




565 






279 


436 


? 


57 


ICBM ft 


SAM MOW 


76 MILES APART 










374 




526 






313 


454 


? 


30 


ICBM ft 


SAM NOW 


J2 MILES APART 






? 




346 




453 






363 


512 


225 


ICBM ft 


SAM NOW 


21 MILES APART 










323 




449 






315 


470 


? 


235 


ICBM ft 


SAM NOW 


17 MILES APART 










295 




436 






864 


422 


? 


245 


ICBM * 


SAM NOW 


12 MILES APART 










271 




369 






259 


369 


? 


240 


ICBM ft 


SAM NOW 


21 MILES APART 










242 




335 






229 


316 


? 


60 


ICBM * 


SAM NOW 


52 MILES APART 










213 




299 






355 


365 


? 


240 


ICBM- ft 


SAM NOW 


71 MILES APART 








152 




262 






326 


317 


? 


235 


ICBM 4 


SAM NOW 


64 MILES APART 










155 




215 






194 


269 


? 


243 


ICBM ft 


SAM NOW 


57 MILES APART 










126 




175 






164 


216 


? 


243 


ICBM ft 


SAM NOW 


49 MILES APART 










96 




135 






134 


167 


? 


243 


ICBM 4 


SAM NOW 


44 MILES APART 










67 




92 






134 


116 


? 


223 


ICBM 4 


SAM NOW 


37 MILES AP4RT 










35 




49 






59 


75 


? 


233 



GOOD LUCK-THE ICBM TURNED OUT TO BE A FRIEHDL1T AIRCRAFT 
DO YOU WANT TO PLAY MORE? <Y OR N> 
? N 



12 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



V i 



/A 



o o o 



s 



If 2» 



THERE'S A BIG 
NEW WONOERFUL. 
TOMOf?f?OW FULL 
OF MONUMENTAL 
ACHIEVEMENTS/! 

UNHEARD OF VISTAS 
OF PrtOGAESS AWAIT/ 
BETTER WORLDS ARE 
os BEING BUlLTVEVERfoNt 
MU- KftVE ALL OF 

gVERVTH/V&f <-er5 
rie THINGS WE'RE 

qo\ n/c> To eer /n 

TK6 VEAKS TO 
COME/ 



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MAY-JUNE 1975 



13 



YOU WONT HAV6 TO «MIT ANYMORE ' 

Bowels wiu ec Remove d at ©irth 

ANO A UNITIZING DISPOSAL UNtr IN - 
STALLED ME EPS EMPTYING ONLY ONCE A 
MONTH. MO MORE WOARV AftOOT 4WEaV 

excAeMEhfr/ good- ere toilet// 



BWU>lNCS y CARS WILL B6 SOFT PtASTlC. 

86 P ^AST1C. ACCIDENTS 

Silt ft? HURT Mo^ T ' 




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I OAV. CIT1 EE WILL HAVE ROOM TEMPER 
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ftC SOFT, DIFFUSED. WARM SHOW 
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ft*. 




E>VEA\OHfi WILL 8£ TUNED IN To EVERY- 
THING THAT'S HAPPENING Alt THE TIM6/ 
WO -ONE WUt &C LEFT OUT. VSJE'U AU Qe 
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EC DOME QV 0>MW/T£«»Zf;D RO80T5. 
ffoPlS CAN SPEND ALL or THffCR TIMg 
f LAYING. EATING, OR WATCHING TV/ 





14 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



MAY-JUNE 1975 15 



Just to keep us oh our toes, vast euver 

TAtMMEtfT NET WORKS WlU AE 0A6AMlZ£O 
THAT SnctfkUZS, <H SURP«/S€ FRANKS/ 

pEOPlft "<U. G£T TRlPfCO / 



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TAEE? WlU MAKE FACES/ PfftL AM 
ORAM G£ AND SOCKO J , ^ y/ / 




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6XACOY WHAT IT «/ 

(5 NOW 




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WITH TV HCAOr THAT PlAV VlDBO TAPES 
Of MOM AMb OAD. PAAEVW WftLNO 
IOM6EA ft* TIRO TO THUR CM I L© AIM/ 



IMVEMTfO. 

KIDS WIU. AISK TH6CA LIVES <M 0AN6IAPU* 

— AACfiS. SO^C OS THESE JOES 

1 ST AS XPOO MPH If 




16 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




VCAA 



ac SATHE«£J> AMD ruT ,MT ^ "««6 




•Ate oca as WE IcMow ifwiu. 8£ R£fLACEt> I 

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5S 






MAY-JUNE 1 975 



17 



Follow-up on Palindromes 

Remember in the Jan.-Feb. issue on page 12 we asked 
if readers could improve on Tom Karzes' programs to turn 
any number into a palindrome by successive reversals and 
adding. Here's an example: 




484 a palindrome 

In the Jan.-Feb. issue we said Tom Karzes palindrome 
program fails with greater than a 7-digit number." What 
we really should have said is that it will not accept input 
numbers of over seven digits. In retrospect, this is not much 
of a limitation at all since palindromic seed numbers are 
generally much less than 7 digits. His program, in fact, 
spews out a number as long as a Teletype line. Sorry, Tom! 

In any event, Gregory Yob of Menlo Park, CA put 
some additional sophistication into a palindromic reversal 
program. Here's the program, a couple of sample runs and 
then a portion of the run using -196 as a starter (remember 
- thats the one that doesn't seem to ever become 
palindromic). Gregory interrupted that run after 101 
additions. 

He then wrote a souped up version that doesn't print 
out the calculations but rather just the final palindrome and 
number of steps to reach it. If a palindrome isn't formed by 
254 digits the program quits and prints the last number. 
Here s a listing of the second program and a couple of 
sample runs including the run of 196 as a starter. 

Want to carry on? Why not modify the program to try 
all the numbers between 100 and 200 in sequence? Or 
extend it, if your BASIC compiler permits, to handle a 
longer number? 



0070 

0080 

0090 

0100 

0110 

0120 

0130 

0140 

01 50 

0160 

0170 

0180 

0190 

0800 

0210 

0220 

0230 

0240 

0250 

0260 

0270 

0280 



DIM ASC2543#B$C2543#CSC2543 
PRINT "STARTING #"; 
INPUT AS 
S-0 

REM- PRI NT LAST SUM 
PRINT TABCMUJAS 
REM! MAKE REVERSED # 

FOR J«LEN(AS)/TO 1 STEP "I 

K«LEN(AS>-J+1 

BSCKtKXASCJUJ 

NEXT J 

S^S* 1 4>IT REVERSED # * STEP COUNT 
PRINT S;TAB(ll)iBS 
REM- DO THE ADDITION 
CS-AS+BS 

REM! RESET AND DO AG A I I N 
AS-CS 

BS-" " ^ 

PRI NT 
GOTO 120 
END 



STARTING #72344 
2344 
1 4432 



STARTING 



6776 
6776 

#7 19 6 

196 
691 

887 
788 



RUMS 



STARTING 


#7176 


1 


176 


671 




847 


2 


748 




1595 


3 


59 51 




7546 


4 


6457 




14003 


5 


30041 




44044 


6 


44044 


STARTI NG 


#7 776 


1 


776 


677 



2 



1453 
3541 

4994 



AM* UCW* THC Htfr ok* 



3 
4 

99 

100* 

101 



1675 
5761 



7436 
6347 




AIX TMC ItnCRMtOUflt pfctUT- 

Oor C VOW ftm* IT'. ). 6BC60ft<| 

TWC *UM AtTOL IOI 
AOfetftotJf 

70744492156O82048017808918709751 181651 18444806 
6084448 1 1 56181 1 579078 19808710840280651 29444707 

13158897331226320592562872742059146230247889513 
31598874203264195024727826529 502362213379885131 

44 757 7 7 1 53449 0 5 1 56 1 7 29 0 699 27 1 56 1 508 443 62 7774 644 
44647772634480516517299609271651509443517775744 



1675-Ever a Palindrome? 

Two students at Highland Park High School, NJ, Tony 
Skaltsiotis and Andrew Glassner, decided to test the 
hypothesis that 1675 does not ever become palindromic 
even after infinite reversals. They wrote a program which 
could reverse and add the number tens of thousands of 
times, and store up to 7167 digits. 

The PDP8/e at the high school could only reverse the 
number 60 times, so they went to the IBM 360 at Rutqers 
University. 3 

They write us, "We tested the number for palin- 
dromacy while reversing it ten- thousand times. We achieved 
no palindrome, but we did get a 3798-digit number! Since 
we ran the program using a CRT terminal, we had no 
hard-copy printout, but we will send you the results after 
we attempt even more reversals." 

[Ed note: I have discussed this problem with Walt 
Koetke, our Problems Editor, and Greame Levin, Publisher 
of Games & Puzzles. I would speculate that the numbers 
being formed, probably after something like 100 digits are 
essentially random and, by definition, sooner or later' the 
reversal will become a palindrome solely because it is 
random. Do you agree? Let's hear more from readers on 
this. - DHA] 



0010 

0020 

0030 

0040 

0050 

0060 

0070 

0080 

009 0 

0100 

0110 

0120 

0130 

0140 

0150 

0160 

0170 

0180 

0190 

0200 

0210 

0220 

0230 

0240 

0250 

0260 

0270 

0280 

0290 

0300 

0310 

0320 

0330 

0340 

0350 

0360 

0370 

0380 

0390 

0400 

0410 

0420 

0430 

0440 

0450 



REMI FIND A PALINDROMIC NUMBER BY REVERSALS AND ADDITIONS 

^EMl BY GREGORY YOB (415) 326-4039 

REMI PO BOX 310# MENLO PARK* CALIFORNIA 94025 

REMI --- INSPIRED BY ARTICLE IN CREATIVE COMPUTING 

REMI — - RUN ON BASIC TIMESHARING SYSTEM 3000 

REMI — - WHICH HAS LIMITED STRING ARITHMETIC 

DIM AS<254)>BS<254)#CSC254) 

PRINT "STARTING *"i 

INPUT AS 

S-0 

PRINT LAST SUM 

REMOVED TO ELIMINATE PRINTOUT 
MAKE REVERSED # 



STEP -1 
BEGINS WITH 

200 



REM- 
REMI 
REM! 
B$»" " 

FOR J-LENCAS) TO 1 

REMI RESULT STRINT 

K-LEN<AS)-J*2 

IF AS(JlJ)-" " THEN 

BS(KlK)-A$<JI J> 

NEXT J 

REMI PRINT REVERSED # 4 STEP COUNT 
S-S+l 

REMI REMOVED A REPLACED BY A TEST 

IF AS-BS THEN 340 

IF LEN(AS)«254 THEN 320 

REM- DO THE ADDITION 

CS-AS+BS 

REMI RESET AND DO AGAIIN 

AS-CS 

BS-" - 

GOTO 140 

PRINT "IS NOT "J 

GOTO 350 

PRI NT 

PRINT "PALINDROMIC 
PRINT » THE NUMBER 
PRINT ASCII 70) 
IF LENCASX71 THEN 
PRINT ASC71U40) 
IF LENCASX141 THEN 
PRINT ASC 1411 210) 
IF LENCASX2U THEN 
PRINT AS(21H254> 
GOTO 450 
END 



A BLANK* SOI 



AT STEP 
ISt" 

450 

450 

450 



•S-l 



STARTING #7196 

STOPPED AT 800 
XI? PRINT SJLENC AS) 
425 188 




WV MM 



XI? PRI NT AS 

602395543223898867177507081699631868161 128610560831 7432 19 367*1 1 3ft i 7***n 
1573216185704689629 0 70576185898 7432246582305 »W7I3W60 



XI? GOTO 200 



PR06KAJ* 
WMCU 



HALTCO 
Po 



IS NOT PALINDROMIC AT STEP 584 
THE NUMBER I St 

1797832204844160068089622472535806104574202539 34734211 
4812966783124693965464737561164092999951577064625923388 

46201385302697635373226089760062438403328896 



1€+ Ot+<ri. 

Cttf- 08 *«TRM. 

705030836407528 
740047774319526 
030507112338428 



18 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



With trembling pseudopods, Rork Glanf 
tore away the Earth-Girls space-suit 



>yo« so 





SCIENCE FICTION BY DOODLES WEAVER 



1H1 G and again, and overtime 



SEATED IN THE TIME-BINDING HARNESS, and with a Smile 

that could only mean sinister self-assurance, Rork Glanf, 
inter-stellar spy from Ganymede II posing as Professor 
Aych Gentry of the Cybernetics-Semantics Laboratory, 
Earthian Division, pressed the nuclear stub which would 
release the tensor force fields surrounding him and propel 
him into another space-time phase. Even as his ducleum- 
covered waldo made contact with the magnetic knob, 



Glanf -Gentry reviewed quickly what he must do in the 
next few moments. 

Immediately on arriving in the year he was born, he 
would enter the place of his birth, disguise himself as an 
intern, steal into the. maternity ward, and surreptitiously 
exchange two infants in their cribs— himself and his twin 
brother— thus causing a rupture in the past that would 
enable him to return to the present as King of the Galaxy, 

continued 



Copyright 1957 by Trump, Inc. Reprinted by permission. 



MAY-JUNE 1975 



19 



t 



Ti 



lme and again, and overtime continued 

which position his brother now held. Simple, fast, effective, 
and foolproof! 

Gentry-Glanf's pseudopod, disguised as a human finger, 
released the activating distorter! In the laboratory rose- a 
loud whine and a light flashed reminiscent of a super-nova 
as Glanf and the time-binding machine disappeared. 

o o O 

Shading his eyes with one hand, Professor Karloff looked 
up from his vivisection of a Syrian aqua-aardvark and said 
to Adam Rink, the Android: "Bless my garters, what won't 
that young fool think of next?" 

© © © 

Transported instantaneously to the day of his birth, Glanf 
materialized on the front steps of the hospital, slipped inside, 
overpowered a lone intern with his portable thalamic-para- 
lyzer, donned the white uniform, walked boldly into the 
baby ward, went directly over to himself-the infant, re- 
moved himself from one crib and substituted his twin 
brother for himself, putting himself in his brother s bed. 
Then, cackling mirthfully to himself-as-adult in Saturnian 
pidgeon-Martian, he reactivated the nuclear stud and be- 
fore you could say "Wow" he reappeared in the laboratory 
just as Professor Karloff was ending the speech- "that young 
fool think of next?" 

At that instant his smile of confidence froze. Why had 
he returned to the laboratory, if he were the King of the 
Galaxv? 

How come he was sfill an insignificant interstellar spy? 
Why was he not in the Uranium Chair of the King? 
What had gone wrong? 
Where was the mixup? Why ... 

"I'll tell you why!" shouted Adam the Android (who 
was also a telepath), tearing off his human face and reveal- 
ing the lizard-like features of the terrible man-eating Plu- 
tonian Quaggle-beast: "Because I am really your twin 
brother and I perfected the time-binding machine just 
twenty minutes before you did, and I went to our birth- 
place and switched the babies first, so you actually put 
yourself back to where you were in the first place!" 

Then laughing like a moon-mad space pirate, the android- 
human-Quaggle-beast slid across the floor on his nineteen 
appendages into a teleportation booth, appearing imme- 
diately in his Uranium Chair at the meeting of the Galactic 
Council, where he quickly signed a document recommend- 
ing death for his twin brother, Professor Aych Gentry, who 
was really Rork Glanf. 

But Glanf the Ganymedian was not so easily defeated. 
Instantly he pressed the stub of the tensor force-field ma- 
chine and returned to the past two hours before the pre- 
ceeding conversation occurred. There" he perfected the 
Time Machine, and returned to the present one-half hour 
before his twin brother had perfected it, then rapidly 
returned to the day of his birth, overpowered the intern, 



switched the babies, and reappeared in the laboratory just 
as Professor Karloff was ending the speech: "that young 
fool think of next?" 

* o o 

At that instant his smile of confidence froze. Why had 
he returned to the laboratory, if he were King of the 
Galaxy?. 

How come he was still an insignificant interstellar spy? 
Why was he not in the Uranium Chair of the King? 
What had gone wrong? 
Where was the mixup? Why . . . 

Til tell you why!" howled Adam the Android (also a 
telepath), tearing off his human face and revealing the 
ugly features of the truculent flesh-eating Plutonian 
Quaggle-beast. 

"Because I, Adam, I am really your twin brother 
and I knew you were going to go back in time two hours 
before I perfected' the Time Machine so I went back four 
hours before you went back the second time and then I 
returned to our birthplace and switched the babies before 
you switched the babies the second time after you had 
switched the babies the first time, so you actually put your- 
self back to where you were the time before you switched 
the babies the second time!" 

Then shrieking like an insane spider the human-android- 
Quaggle-beast slushed across the floor on his nineteen 
tentacles into a teleportation booth, appearing immediately 
in the Uranium Chair at the meeting of the Galactic Coun- 
cil, where he signed a death warrant for his twin brother, 
Professor Gentry, who was really Rork Glanf. 

But the spy-Professor-Ganymedian was not so easily de- 
feated. Instantly he pressed the stub of the time binding 
machine and returned to the past, six hours before the two 
preceding occurrences, perfected the Time Machine, re- 
turned to the present one-half hour before his twin brother 
had perfected it the second time, went back to the day of 
his birth, overpowered the intern, switched the babies, and 
reappeared in the laboratory just as Professor Karloff was 
ending his speech: "that young fool think of next?" 

O © O 

But his smile of confidence froze. Why had he returned 
to the laboratory, if he were King of the Galaxy? What had 
gone wrong? Where was the mixup? Why . . . 

Til tell you why!" screamed Adam the Android (who 
could also read minds), tearing off his face and so on: Be- 
cause I am really your twin brother and I knew you were 
going to go and so on and on . 

o o o 

Those two little babies really got around, hey? 

e © © 

P. S. You rascals looking for the part about Earth-Girl 
shown in opening illustration-never mind! It was all a hoax 
by us foxy editors to make you read story. 



20 CREATIVE COMPUTING 



! 



Problems for Creative Computing . 



AEDI, MUTAB, NEDA and SOGAL 



by Walter Koetke 
Lexington High School 

Your non-terrestrial thoughts should not remain free of 
problems that require creative solutions. Toward that end, 
here are two situations that you might find interesting. 
After solving either one or both of these problems, please 
send your solution to Walter Koetke at the Creative 
Computing address. The best solutions received will be 
acknowledged in a future column. 

If you think you've seen the first problem before, you 
may be correct. It's really an old problem in a new disguise. 

The civilizations of the three planets Neda, Mutab and 
Sogal have agreed to begin a war in the year 2431. 
Although these societies have not eliminated such irrational 
actions as war, they have at least formalized the process. 
There are, for instance, no guerilla activities and wars are 
usually very brief and always decisive. Wars are fought with 
inter-planetary rockets each of which is powerful enough to 
completely destroy an entire planet. With such powerful 
weapons at their disposal, Neda, Mutab and Sogal have 
agreed to the following set of rules, for only in this way can 
they be assured of a single victor. 

Rule 1: The fight will continue until only one 
civilization remains. 

Rule 2: The rather primitive technique of drawing 
lots will be used to determine which planet 
may launch the first rocket, which the 
second and which the third. 



Rule 3: After the launching rotation is established, 
rocket launching begins and continues in 
order until only one planet remains. 

When contemplating the outcome of this war, the three 
civilizations have full knowledge of the background of their 
adversaries. 

Mutab is clearly the technologically superior civiliza- 
tion. Once launched, their rockets always strike with 
perfect accuracy — thus disproving a modern theory that 
nothing is perfect. Before this war begins, both of the other 
civilizations are aware of the terrifying fact that if a Mutab 
rocket is fired at them, the probability of their being 
completely destroyed is 1. 

Neda is the oldest civilization and long ago had the 
superior technology. However, the complacency of a 
self-centered, unchallenged mind has been eroding this 
superiority for many years. As a result, the technology of 
Neda has not advanced in over 40 years. If a Nedian rocket 
is fired at another planet, the probability of hitting that 
planet is 0.8, just as it was 40 years ago. 

Sogal is by far the newest of the three civilizations. 
Being dedicated to producing its own technology on its 
own terms has resulted in a proud and purposeful civiliza- 
tion, but one that is technologically four to five hundred 
years behind its present adversaries. A missile launched by 
Sogal has only a 50-50 chance of reaching its intended 
target. 

Your role in this future war is to determine each 
civilization's probability of winning. 




uzzles for this cblumn! ! 



MAY-JUNE 1975 



21 



6 



AEDI continued 



The second problem is based upon an idea presented 
by C. Stanley Ogilvy in the text Tomorrow's Math , Oxford 
University Press, 1972. However, you should attempt your 
own solution before seeking Ogilvy 's support. 

Although the civilization on the planet of Aedi is 
generally considered rather advanced, its political system no 
longer attracts the imagination and support of the majority 
of citizens. In an effort to attract more capable leaders at 
the highest level, a new plan was formulated for selecting 
the president. The originators of the plan also hoped that 
their new idea would result in a younger president and a 
change of presidents at least every 10 years. 

Essentially, the new plan is as follows. Once a president 
is selected, he holds office for at least five years. At that 
time he may or may not be replaced by a newly selected 
person. The selection process is new and is the key to this 
new plan. The selection process is a problem - one problem 
known by all citizens at all times. When a president has 
served for five years, all citizens of Aedi are invited to 
submit their solution to the problem. If a solution 
submitted is better than that previously submitted by # the 
current president, then the submitter becomes the new 
president. If a solution submitted is equal to that previously 
submitted by the current president, then the submitter 
becomes the new president only if his solution is also 
different from that previously submitted by the current 
president. 

The problem used by the Aedians to select their leader 
can be attacked on many different levels. The problem 
involves three sets of three instructions each and a board on 
which play is recorded. Three blank instruction sets and the 
playing tablet appear as: 



B 






B 






B 




0 




0 




0 




1 






1 




1 





INSTRUCTION 
SET 1 



t 

phi 

yoursr 



INSTRUCTION 
SET 2 

PLAYING TABLET 



INSTRUCTION 
SET 3 



t 



START 



Then 
human-Q, 
appendages 
diately in his ± . . M , r 

Council, when? of the form ST0P (self-explanatory) or 

j .if , ?ments: 
mg death for hi: 

was really Rork ^ tjon of what tQ record Qn ^ p|aying 

But Glanf the Ga 0nly P ossibilities are 1, 0 or B (blank). 
Instantly he pressed t of whjch djrectjon tQ moye Qn ^ 
chine and returned to q ne , eft or rjght are the on|y 

ceeding conversation occ 
Time Machine, and returne.., 

before his twin brother had:h instruction board contains 
returned to the day of his birt be followed. . 

• record a 1 on the playing 
30 to board 3 for the next 




President of Aedi 



The combination of the contents of your place on the 
playing tablet and the instruction board you are following 
dictate your next insturction. The left column of the 
instruction board indicates B (blank), 0 or 1. If your 
current place on the playing tablet is blank, you follow 
instruction B; if it is a 0, you follow instruction 0; and if it 
is a 1, you follow instruction 1. The play always begins 
with board 1 . 

Consider the following complete set of instructions. If 
you think you understand the rules, try following the 
instructions before reading further. 



B 


1-R-2 




B 


1-R-3 




B 


1 - L - 1 


0 


B-R-3 




0 


1 - L - 1 




0 


STOP 


1 


0- L-2 




1 


B - L - 3 




1 


1 - R - 1 















• 



t 1 3 4 S $ 1 S II lit) 

^- START 

The infinite tablet has been partially numbered for the 
convenience of this discussion. Play begins on board 1 and, 
since square 8 is blank, our move is 1-R-2. Thus we write a 
1 in square 8, move 1 square to the right (square 9) and go 
to board 2 for the next instruction. Since square 9 is blank, 
the second instruction is I^R-3. Once again we write a 1, 
move to the right, and this time go to board 3 for the next 
instruction. Our tablet now looks like 













1 


1 













] 



t • • 



13 4 f 4*1 8 9 I* II lx \% |4» IS 

^ WE'RE HERE 



22 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



1 



The next instruction is 1-L-1, which records a 1 in 
square 10, returns us to square 9 and indicates that the next 
instruction is on board 1. Because square 9 contains a 1, 
our instruction is O-L-2 so we replace the 1 with a G\ move 
to square 8 and proceed to board 2 for the next instruction. 
The tablet now appears as: 



• • • 



••• 



X % 4 5 4 1 8 9 to II a 11 |4 19 



WE'RE HERE 

And on we go. If you continue following these instructions 
until you reach STOP, the tablet will finally appear as: 



• 













1 


t 


1 


0l| 


1 



• • • 



I % 3 4 S C -I * 3 !• It ML It 14 19 



When STOP is reached, the success of the effort is measured 
by the longest string of consecutive ones that appear on the 
tablet. In the example, the longest string contained but 
three ones. 

The Aedians' problem was not to follow a particular 
instruction set, but to create one. Specifically, their leader 
would be the person who could write the series of 
instructions that would produce the longest finite sequence 
of consecutive ones. Since you've just seen the example 
used to introduce the problem to the young Aedians, you'll 
have to beat three consecutive ones before you're their new 
leader. If you generate an impressive series, be sure to send 
the instructions to Creative Computing. All worlds seem 
desperately in need of leaders and we'll gladly publish your 
name as a likely candidate. 



Never underestimate the importance of just 
fooling around. 

Kenneth Boulding 

lit w w 

"The only time my education was inter- 
rupted was when I went to school." 

George Bernard Shaw 

* * * 

READ THIS! 




We are skipping the July-August issue and resum- 
ing with the Sept.-Oct. issue. All subscriptions will be 
EXTENDED one issue to compensate. This is not a 
regular occurence; we are doing it in 1975 only to 
bring Volume 1 of six issues in line with the calendar 
year, i.e., No. 6 will now be the Nov. -Dec. 75 issue 
and Volume 2 will start with Jan. -Feb. '76. 



Puzzles and 
Problems For Fun 



► The number 153 = 13 + 53 + 33 Find all other 
3-digit numbers that have the same property. How 
about 4-digit numbers? To the 4th? 

Bill Morrison 
Sudbury, Mass. 




► Mr. Karbunkle went to the bank to cash his 
weekly paycheck. In handing over the money, the 
cashier, by mistake, gave him dollars for cents and 
cents for dollars. 

He pocketed the money without examining it 
and spent a nickel on candy for his little boy. He 
then discovered the error and found he possessed 
exactly twice the amount of the check. 

If he had no money in his pocket before 
cashing the check, what was the exact amount of 
the check? One clue: Mr. Karbunkle earns less than 
$50 a week. 



► Can you find the missing number for each 
diagram? You first have to figure the pattern which 
may be horizontal or vertical with a relationship 
between every number, every second or third 
number. You may have to add, subtract, multiply, 
divide, invert or do a combination of these things. 
Have fun! 



A. 



C. 



3 


5 




17 


7 




15 


4* 




37 


73 












4 


2o 








8 


6 




6 


54 






7 


49 


7 







13 


6 


7 






12 




lo 



27 



12 G 3 
.4 — 1 



^Send us your favorite puzzles for this cblumnl! 



MAY-JUNE 1975 



23 



PILOT 73 
Information Exchange 

A little while ago, I was wondering how PILOT 73 was getting 
along. As I asked my friends what's up, I noticed that . . . Lots of 
folk are using PILOT, but there's nobody who knows much about 
who's doing what with which machine, et cetera. 

A typical situation is: There's an experienced FORTRAN 
programmer who is eager to develop a PILOT interpreter in ANSI I 
FORTRAN IV. However, he doesn't know of anyone who wants 
such a system. As I was looking through another friend's 
correspondence, I discovered several requests for a PILOT written in 
FORTRAN. 

As a dedicated PILOT - person, (having written several 
versions from time to time) I came up with a neat idea . . . 



A FREE OR LOW-COST CO-ORDINATING 
SERVICE FOR PILOT USERS!!! 



Rather than waiting for somebody else to do this, I undertake 
this task (as fate allows me to have the requisite time). Now to flesh 
out the idea: 

WHAT YOU CAN DO FOR ME 

At the moment, there are lists of names with cryptic notes 
piled upon my desk. These are persons interested in PILOT in some 
way. However, there's very little knowledge beyond the names. 
Spend a few minutes, answer the questions below, and send to me. 
If you do this, you become a member of the Exchange. 

WHAT I CAN DO FOR YOU 

1) Summary Sheet I will assemble a catalog of PILOT people and 
send it to you. A short summary of each person or group's 
interests will be included under general areas of interest (ie, all 
B5500 users). From time to time, updated catalogs will be sent 
out. This is free until costs become excessive. 

2) Connections Send me your need or request and I shall pass it 
on to those with the resource you need. Both you and they 
will get a card indicating your area of mutual interest. 

3) Resource Center I shall maintain a library of PILOT resources, 
including listings of PILOT programs, PILOT interpreters, 
translators, and other implementations, manuals, technical 
tricks, and so forth. An index of the library will be attached to 
the Summary Sheet. Help the library grow by contributing a 
copy of your aspect of PILOT. If a particular item in the 
Library is of interest to you, I will make copies for you at cost. 

Remember, the more I know, the better the service is for you. 

Gregory Yob 
PO Box 310 

Menlo Park, Calif. 94025 

PILOT 73 RESOURCE QUESTIONNAIRE 

NAME: 

ADDRESS: 

PHONE: 

1 ) Do you have a working version of PI LOT? 

2) ! f yes, on which machine(s)? 

2.1 ) Host language? 

2.2) Core Memory required? 

2.3) Configuration of Peripherals? 

2.4) How well is it debugged? 

2.5) Did you write it yourself? 

2.6) Compiler/I nterpreter /Translator? 

2.7) Performance/response time? 

2.8) Do you have a user's Manual? (Send a copy) 

2.9) Do you have a listing and paper tape? (Send a copy) 

3) If you are writing PILOT programs, are there some available 
for others? (send copies please) 

4) Are you looking for a version of PILOT? (If yes, 2.1 - 2.9 
above) 

5) Please state your needs and interests: 

6) Names and addresses of other persons you feel may be 
interested in the Exchange: 



Nolan Bushnell- 

Father of PONG 

by Trish Todd 

You spot a large metal machine in the corner; it has 
two knobs, a coin slot, and a television screen which shows 
a dot of light lazily bouncing off the sides of the screen at 
irregular angles. Immediately, you are curious and begin to 
read the instructions to Pong, one of the computerized 
games from Atari, Inc. 

The company was started two years ago by Nolan 
Bushnell, who was managing an amusement park to finance 
an electrical engineering major. He built the first game 
prototype, Computer Space, in his garage, and then he met 
"Moose," who built games from other designs of Bushnell's 
for a percentage. The first was Pong; it was tested in a bar 
called Andy Capp's — and in 24 hours you couldn't get near 
it. The "company" then expanded to include twelve other 
people who worked together and produced ten Pongs a day. 
Each Pong brings in about $200 a week. 

The "company" has now developed into Atari, Inc., 
worth over $20,000,000. Located in Los Gatos, California, 
Atari manufactures Pong, Gotcha, Rebound, Space Race, 
Super Pong, Pong Doubles, Quadrapong, and Grantrak 10. 
Bushnell now owns Atari, and Moose is vice-president of 
research and development; both are confronted with 
lawyers, patents, security, ahd labor problems which they 
never foresaw in BushnelTs garage. 

As Atari has grown, Nolan has tried to retain the 
"Atarian philosophy," which is based, on dignity, trust, 
freedom, and loyalty. This philosophy is intended to 
produce a comfortable working environment; for example, 
labor and management share the same medical-insurance 
program (which also covers unwed pregnancies). The 
company tries to promote an informal atmosphere, both on 
the assembly line and between labor and management. Both 
men and women work on the assembly line, where judging 
from the hair and attire, sex is hard to distinguish. There 
are both men and women administrators too. Nolan's 
management philosophy is occasionally revealed in the 
form of a surprise party for all the employees - and he 
buys the liquor! 

However, the "Atarian philosophy" has also had to 
cope with several problems. Workers have been uneasy 
about the absence of a union; the assembly line is a 
hazardous place, and an exploding television screen can 
permanently ruin a limb. Workers have complained of low 
wages. Atari has also had to hire security guards to protect 
itself from theft by employees who have used the philoso- 
phy to their advantage. 

Atari's success is a result of its product's popularity. 
Their "computer" games are found in bars, lounges, hotel 
lobbies, banks, and country clubs; in Hawaii, Pongs may be 
found on the sidewalks chained to parking meters. Its 
popularity lies in its sophistication; like tennis, it involves 
coordination and brain power, and the more one practices, 
the less is left to chance. These games addict their players 
because the final result is either frustration or reward. The 
games also easily lend themselves to socialization through 
light-hearted competition or, as in Pong Doubles, through 
teamwork. Atari has gone one step beyond novelty and 
developed a true participatory sport. 

As the. blip lazily glides into your goal and your 
opponent scores again, it is hard to realize that the game is 
based on the algorithms that are built into a computer's 
circuitry system. So quarter after quarter is deposited in the 
slot, Atari's profits zoom upward, and the computer 
becomes increasingly important in America's leisure time. 



24 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Playing 
PONG to 



Win 



by David Ah I 

First you should understand that Pong is merely a 
miniature "computer" attached to a TV screen. The 
behavior of the ball and paddles is permanently pro- 
grammed into the "computer" or PC board. If X happens, 
Y will result. Simple. No luck involved. No body English. 
No spins on the ball. Understand the algorithms and you 
can win the game. 

The Paddle 

The Pong paddle seems to be a single unbroken surface. 
Many players believe it can impart a spin to the ball as in 
actual ping-pong or tennis. Wrong. The paddle actually 
consists of seven sections. Each section returns the ball at a 
predetermined angle, no matter what the angle of inci- 
dence. The middle section returns it horizontally, the end 
sections at the greatest angles. The others are in between. 
Try to set your paddle for a return as soon as possible and 
fine tune it on the final approach of the ball. 




The Volley 

The bail may seem to speed up with every volley. It 
doesn't. But it does speed up on the fourth and twelfth 
volleys. And, devilishly, the return angles of the paddles 
increase on these volleys too. 



Gotcha Zones 

A shot hit to the four corners of the screen cannot be 
returned no matter what the position of the paddle. You 
can most easily hit the ball to your opponent's corners 
from the center of the court; it's more difficult as you get 
to either of your corners. Hence, try to aim the ball at your 
opponent's corners to either score on him or at least 
prevent him getting it to your corners. 







The Serve 

The person who misses a point always receives the next 
serve. (On some earlier Pongs this algorithm was reversed, 
i.e., person who scores a point receives the next serve). You 
can predict where the serve will come from by simply 
imagining the screen wrapped around a cylinder with a 
second screen in back that you can't see. If the ball went 
off the screen fairly straight, it will appear from a 
continuation of the same path it was tracing. If it went off 
at an angle, it will bounce against the edge of the invisible 
screen on the other side of the cylinder and reappear at the 
new (opposite) angle. If you miss an angular serve, the next 
one will approach slightly higher or lower (unless the angle 
was exactly 45° in which case it will come from the same 
point). 




Now go hustle your friends. And if they want to know 
how you got so good all of a sudden, tell them to subscribe 
to Creative Computing. 




Supplement to the Whole Earth Catalog 

mOMMQN 

JJzzd Ouartcrlv 



CoEvolution Quarterly is the latest in an extraordinary 
series of publications from Stewart Brand, leader and 
spokesman for the Alternative Press movement. 

I visited briefly with Stewart last November in his 
warehouse-on-the-water in Sausalito, windowless unfortu- 
nately. The place is piled floor-to-ceiling with magazines, 
newsletters, and information about virtually every project, 
organization, store or source in the U. S. It brings to mind 
NBC News Central although here the information is the 
written word rather than tapes and TTY prinout. Here in 
this dilapidated building is both the nerve center and 
central clearinghouse for the alternative press of the nation. 

You have all seen Whole Earth Catalog, Last Updated 
Whole Earth Catalog, and Whole Earth Epilog full of those 
perceptive, mind-expanding notations followed by the now 
famous "--SB" (Stewart Brand). CoEvolution Quarterly 
brings you updates of material from the catalogs, new 
listings, as well as some longer articles and stories. Packed 
with information and sources about land use, shelter, food, 
community, learning, communications, and the alternative 
life. Handled by many local bookstores or $6.00/year from 
558 Santa Cruz, Menlo Park, CA 94025. 



History shows that new ideas in science most 
often come from brash youngsters, mavericks, 
or rank outsiders. 

Fortune, May 1974 



MAY-JUNE 1975 



25 



t 




Another new game from Creative Computing . . . 



LUNAR 

by David Ahl 

LUNAR, also known as ROCKET, APOLLO, LEM 
etc. is, next to STAR TREK and SPACE WAR, the most 
popular computer game. It is certainly the most popular on 
smaller machines. (I remember a milestone of sorts when I 
managed to compress LUNAR to run on 4K PDP-8 BASIC 
while retaining full instructions and landing messages. I 
used every single character available.) 

The version of LUNAR presented here was originally 
written in FOCAL by Jim Storer, a student at Lexington 
(Mass.) High School in the mid 60's. While everyone claims 
to be the original program author of LUNAR, I'm 
reasonably sure that Jim predates the others and therefore 
qualifies as the original, original author. I converted the 
program to BASIC in early 1970. It's a straight-forward 
version without side stabilization rockets or other goodies 
but, nevertheless, is quite a challenge to land successfully. 

PLAYING THE GAME , 

Your mission is to achieve a soft landing of your LEM 
on the moon. You separate from the command ship 200 
miles above the surface of the moon and, every 10 seconds, 
set the burn rate of your retro rockets to slow your craft! 
You may free fall (0 Ibs./sec.) or burn at any rate between 
8 Ibs./sec. and 200 Ibs./sec. Since ignition occurs at 8 
Ibs./sec, burn rates between 1 and 7 Ibs./sec. may not be 
used. A negative burn rate automatically aborts your 
mission. 

There are three popular ways to land: 
Constant burn rate all the way down. 
Free fall for a while, then maximum burn rate tapering 
off as you get close. 

Gradually increase burn rate to a maximum, then taper 
off as you get close. 
Recall from physics that Newton found the force of 
attraction (gravity) between two bodies varies directly with 
the mass of the bodies and inversely with the square of the 
distance between their centers. This may help you land 
successfully. Then again, it may not. 

COMPUTER NOTES 

Convert the program to your version of BASIC. 
Multiple statements on one line are. separated by a colon 
(:). Everything else is standard. 

Some computers produce an error calculating the 
expansions (Statements 910 and 920) when you get close 
to the moon and the numbers get very small. If yours does, 
substitute the expanded form. Here it is for Statement 910: 

-Q* ( 1 +Q* ( 1 /2+Q* ( 1 /3+Q* ( 1 /4+Q/5) ) ) ) 

You should be able to figure out the other one yourself. 

Would you like us to print the other versions of 
LUNAR in Creative Computing? If so, write and let me 
know-DHA. 



1. 
2. 

3. 



MAPPING THE MOON 

This photograph pictures Mare Crisium, the large "flat" area near 
the eastern edge of the moon as seen from Earth. In the foreground 
is the mountainous terrain that forms the southern rim of Mare 
Crisium. Visible near the horizon, 285 miles across the mare, is its 
northern rim. Prominent at above right in the mare is the 
24-mile-wide crater Picard. Photo was made from Apollo 10, the last 
flight before the lunar landing. (Photo Kodak) 



SAMPLE RUN 



RUNNH 

LUNAR LANDING SIMULATION 



CONTROL CALLING LUNAR NODULE. . 

V0U MAV SET THE FUEL RATE <K> TO ZERO OR ANV VALUE 
BETWEEN 8 AND 200 LBS PER SECOND. A NEGATIVE FUEL 
RATE WILL ABORT THE MISSION. 

V0U HAVE 16006 LBS OF FUEL. 

ESTIMATED FREE FALL IMPACT TIME IS 120 SECONDS 
CAPSULE WEIGHT IS 22,500 LBS. 

FIRST RADAR CHECK COMING UP... 
BEGIN LANDING PROCEDURE 



TIME(SECS) 


HEIGHT<MI> 


VELOCITV(MPH) 


FUEL < LBS > 


0 


120 


2600 


16000 


10 


109. 95 


2626 


16000 


20 


99. 8 


2672 


16000 


20 


89. 55 


2788 


1600O 


40 


79. 2 


2744 


16000 


50 


68. 75 


2788 


16000 


€0 


58. 2 


2816 


16000 


70 


47. 55 


2852 


16000 


80 


27. 2656 


2476. 42 


14000 


90 


28. 2622 


2872. 94 


12000 


100 


20. 2222 


2627. 46 


10000 


110 


12. 644 


2164. 97 


8000 


120 


8. 22572 


1649. 14 


6000 


120 


4. 52958 


1081. 92 


4000 


140 


2. 2887 


522. 298 


2200 


150 


1. 22786 


228. 772 


1200 


160 


. 718289 


127. 492 


900 


178 


. 418089 


88. 5788 


700 


180 


. 227646 


41. 1605 


480 


190 


. 147722 


22. 5114 


240 


200 


. 859622E-1 


20. 9169 


240 


210 


. 217204E-1 


18. 0912 


140 



218. 451 SECS. 
IMPACT VEL0CITV OF 8.90172 M. P. H. 
FUEL LEFT 28. 5879 LBS. 
VERV GOOD LANDING, NOT PERFECT VET. 



TRV AGAIN <1 FOR VES, 0 FOR N0>? 0 

CONTROL OUT 

READV 



FUEL RATE 
K? 0 
K? 0 
K? 0 
K? 0 
K? 0 
K? 0 
K? 0 
K? 208 
K? 200 
K? 208 
K? 200 
K? 200 
K? 200 
K? 188 
K? 90 
K? 40 
K? 20 
K? 22 
K? 14 
K? 10 
K? 10 
K? 12 



26 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



PROGRAM LISTING 



L.ISTNH 

1 REM *** WRITTEN 8V JIM STORER, LEXINGTON HS 

2 REM *** CONVERTED FROM FOCAL TO BRSIC BV DAVID fiHL, DIGITAL 
1* PRINT "LUNAR LANDING SIMULATION" : PRINT 

2* PRINT PRINT PRINT "CONTROL CALLING LUNAR MODULE. " PRINT - 
ISPRINWOU MAV SET THE FUEL RATE <K) TO ZERO OR ANV VALUE " 
46PR INT "BETWEEN 8 AND 266 LBS PER SECOND. A NEGATIVE FUEL" 
e ..3 PRINT "RATE WILL ABORT THE MISSION. " : PRINT 
6ePRlNT"V0U HAVE 16&ee LBS OF FUEL. " 

?8PR INT "EST I MATED FREE FALL IMPACT TIME IS 126 SECONDS. " 

©•PRINT -CAPSULE WEIGHT IS 32,506 LBS. " 

96 PRINT PRINT "FIRST RADAR CHECK COMING UP. . . " 

166 PRINT "BEGIN LANDING PROCEDURE" . PRINT : PRINT 

116PRINT"TIMECSECS>", "HEIGHT^MI ) M , "VELOCITV<MPH> "FUEL<LBS> "FUEL RATE" 

126 LET L*6 LET A=126:LET V«1:LET M*32566:LET N=16566 

176 LET G». 661. LET 2*1. 8 

216 PRINT INT<L+ 5>, A, V*3666, M-N, "K"; 

226 INPUT K 

225 LET T=16 

226 IF k:-C6 GO TO 5S>6 
2K5 IF k>6 GOTO 316 
246 IF K<8 THEN 268 
256 IF K<=268 GO TO 316 

268 PRINT "NOT POSSIBLE"/ , , , "K"; 

278 INPUT K : GOTO 228 

216 IF M-N-. 881 <=6 G0T0416 

226 IF T-C. 681 GOTO 218 

326 LET S=T:IF N*S*K<=M GO TO 356 

348 LET S*<M-N>/K 

256 LET 16*1 : GOTO 968 

266 IF I <» 6 GOT 0 718 

276 IF V<=6 GO TO 286 

275 IF J<6 GOTO 818 

2*8 LET I6*1:G0T0666 

416 PR I NT "FUEL OUT AT L; "SECS. M 

428 LET S*<-V+SQR<V*V+2*A*G>>/G 

428 LET V » V+G*S 

446 LET L*L+S 

516 PRINT"ON THE MOON AT "; L; "SECS. " 
511 LET W * 2686*V 

514 PRINT "IMPACT VELOCITY OF W; "M. P. H. " 
526 PRINT "FUEL LEFT "> M-N; "LBS. " 
5:-6 IF W}*1 GOTO 556 

546 PRINT "PERFECT LANDING! CONGRATULATIONS! .' " GOTO 5<?8 
556 IF W >*16 THEN 568 /~ 
552 PRINT "VERV GOOD LANDING, NOT PERFECT VET. " : G0T0596 
568 IF W >= 25 THEN 576 

562 PRINT "A FAIR LANDING, NO CRAFT DAMAGE. " . G0T0596 
578 IF W >* 68 THEN588 

572 PRINT "CRAFT DAMAGE HOPE VOUR OXVGEN HOLDS OUT UNTIL A" 
574 PRINT "RESCUE MISSION ARRI VES ! " : GOTO 596 
588 PRINT "SORRV, BUT THERE WERE NO SURVIVORS. " 

5S5 PRINT "IN FACT VOU BLASTED A NEW LUNAR CRATER W*. 277777; " FEET DEEP 
596 PRINT PRINT PRINT "TRV AGAIN CI FOR VES, 6 FOR N0>"; 
592 INPUT R:IF R=l THEN 96 

595 PRINT: PRINT "CONTROL OUT" : GOTO 1866 

686 LET L*L+S 

616 LET T = T-S 

626 LET M=M-S*K 

628 LET A- I 

646 LET V*J 

656 IF 18*1 GO TO 216 

666 IF 16*2 GO TO 856 

716 IF S< . 685 GO TO 518 

726 LET S= 2*A/<V+SQR<V*V+2*A*<G-Z*K/M>>> 
726 LET 16=2 GOTO 968 
816 LET W*<l-M*G/<Z*K>>/2 

929 LET S = M*V/<Z*K*<W+SOR<W*N*V/Z>>> + . 65 

825 LET 16*2 GOTO 966 

826 IF I<*6 THEN 718 
846 GOTO 666 

856 IF J>*6 THEN 216 

866 IF V06 GO TO 216 

876 GOTO 818 

966 LET C!*S*K/M 

965 IF <K*6 THEN 1868 

918 LET J*V+G*S + Z*<-Q*<l + G(*<l/2 + Q*<:i/3+Q*<:i/4+Q*(.l/5>>>>>> 

926 LET I*A-G*S*S/2-V*S + Z*S*(.Q*<:i/2+Q*<l/6 + Q*<l/12 + e*a/2e+Q*<l/3e)>>>>) 

926 IF 18*1 GOTO 266 

946 IF 18*2 GOTO 686 

958 IF 18=2 GOTO 828 

1666 LET J=V+G*S 

1616 LET I=A-G*S*S/2-V*S > 
1826 G0T0938 
1866 END 

READV 





WOULD YOU LIKE TO EXPRESS 
YOURSELF IN A PERSONAL 
VISIT TO AN EDITOR? 

All the Creative Computing editors are randomly 
available. However, most of us have other jobs which puts 
bread on the table so it isn't the greatest idea to phone us 
during the day. Probably the best time to see one of us is 
face-to-face at a conference. Here is where we'll be (or will 
have been) over the next few months. 

Mar. 20-24 NSTA, Convention Center, Los Angeles 

Apr. 23-26 NCTM, Currigan Hall, Denver, Co. 

Apr. 28-May AEDS, Cavalier Hotel, Virginia Beach 

May 19-23 NCC, Convention Center, Anaheim, Ca. 

May 26-28 NY Book Fair, (watch local newspaper 

for location), New York, N. Y. 

June 16-18 CCUC/6, Texas Christian Univ., Ft. 

Worth, Tx. 



Sept. 1-5 



IF IP, Marseilles, France 



Oct. 20-22 ACM, Radisson Hotel, Minneapolis, Mn. 




We are skipping the July-August issue and resum- 
ing with the Sept.-Oct. issue. All subscriptions will be 
EXTENDED one issue to compensate. This is not a 
regular occurence; we are doing it in 1975 only to 
bring Volume 1 of six issues in line with the calendar 
year, i.e., No. 6 will now be the Nov.-Dec. 75 issue 
and Volume 2 will start with Jan.-Feb. 76. 



Appollo 14 Launch Control Center, Cape Kennedy, Florida 




MAY-JUNE 1 975 



27 



-** -jt»i;v',s'» 



Nicholas Copernicus 

,M . j pig . ,j „: ! , ■ u v f - * round the earth in a larger orbit (or defe 



Mathcmaticus. 

■ \ . \ i. '2.. ., ' I 5*K Wr-* : - 




Copernicus was born on February 19, 1473 y in 
Torun, Polish Prussia, the son of a merchant. Though 
today he is remembered as the father of modern 
astronomy, in his own time he made his livelihood not 
as an astronomer, but as an ecclesiastic. His position 
as canon of the cathedral of Frombork gave him 
both financial security and freedom to pursue his 
own astronomical studies. It was at Frombork that 
Copernicus worked out his great book, the 
De Revolutionibus. 

The accepted model of the structure of the universe 
in Copernicus* time was earth-centered. The sun, 
the moon, the five known planets, and the stars 
were thought to revolve about the earth in endless, 
perfect circles. 

The model was developed by Aristotle around 
350 B.C., and elaborated by Claudius Ptolemy of 
Alexandria around 150 A. D. Ptolemy outlined his 
system in a treatise which has come to be known as 
the Almagest, meaning "the greatest'. 1 What Ptolemy 
established for the first time was a working 
mathematical model by which the positions of the 
planets could be predicted accurately. 

In the Ptolemaic system, each planet moved in a 
small circle (or epicycle) whose center was carried 



round the earth in a larger orbit (or deferent). For 
fourteen centuries astronomers computed planetary 
positions from tables based on this analysis. 

Copernicus described an unfamiliar universe, with 
the sun, not the earth, at its center; he treated the 
earth as a planet among the other planets, with a 
yearly orbit around the sun, a daily rotation on its 
axis, and a conical precession. 

His great breakthrough is the recognition that the 
complex paths which we see traced by the planets 
could be explained by a combination of their own 
motion and that of the earth from which we 
observe them. 

His new model gave astronomical inquiry the 
direction it still follows today. But he arrived at his 
innovations using the traditional assumption, shared 
by Aristotle and Ptolemy, that the motion of 
heavenly bodies must be a compound of circles— an 
idea which was soon to be overthrown by Johannes 
Kepler, as he worked to build a foundation for the 
Copernican hypothesis. 




Copernicus' cosmology drawing, from his manuscript of the 
De Revolutionibus. 



Copernicus' book, the De Revolutionibus, had an 
immediate impact on astronomical theory. 
"Astronomy is written for astronomers',' he wrote in 
his preface. But in the coming century his 
re-examination of the structure of the universe 
would permanently alter the way people thought of 
themselves and their world. 



The De Revolutionibus— published only in the year 
of its author's death — might never have appeared in 
print if Georg Joachim Rheticus, a young professor 
of mathematics, had not persuaded Copernicus to 
entrust him with the manuscript for publication. 



28 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



A new simulation . . . 



Escape 



by Dr. J. Harris 
Chelsea Centre for Science Education 
University of London, England 

INTRODUCTION 

In this module you are going to investigate how an 
object travels if it is launched vertically upwards from the 
earth's surface. You will be able to find out how far away it 
can travel, what initial velocity it must have to reach a 
certain height, and so on. 

Of course the computer doesn't actually do the 
experiments. It might - but in this case doesn't — simply 
tell you the results of trials which have been made. What it 
does do is to work out the results, based on particular 
physical laws, which we have good reason to have faith in. 
The calculations are also based on some simplifying 
assumptions. All this is explained in the body of the text. 

MOTION IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 

Imagine that you are trying to throw a ball straight 
upwards, as high as you can. Obviously the harder you 
throw it the higher it will get before reaching its highest 
point and starting to fall back to earth. 

Q1 Suppose that for your strongest throw the stone gets to 
a height of 5m. How high would the stone get if you 
could give it twice the initial speed? 

A 7.1m 
B 10m 
C 14m 
D 20m 
or E 25m 

i 

If you could answer that correctly you should know 
the height which the stone reaches depends on how much 
kinetic energy it has to start with, and that kinetic energy 
depends on (speed) 2 . So twice the velocity means four 
times the kinetic energy. As the stone goes up its kinetic 
energy is transformed to potential energy. The potential 
energy depends on how high above the ground the stone is, 
and when the stone is 20m above ground, the potential 
energy is four times that for 5m above ground. 

So we can calculate how far the stone will go for a 
particular initial speed, however great. We can also calculate 
what initial speed it must be given to reach a particular 
distance. 



The Che/sea Science Simulation Project is the British counter- 
part to the Huntington Computer Project in the United 
States. In other words, it is a project to produce high-quality 
computer simulation modules consisting of a program, 
student's workbook, and teacher's guide. Most of the 
modules produced to date are in the areas of physics and 
biology and are in various states of test, revision, and final 
forms. A test version of the physics module, ESCAPE, is 
presented here. Future issues of Creative Computing will 
carry a complete article about the Chelsea Science Simulation 
Project and, hopefully, additional modules if enough readers 
want them. Write and let us know your interests. 



Q2 So far we have made at least two assumptions in this 
discussion. Do you know what they are? 

Suppose that a space probe were fired directly from 
the earth's surface, and fired fast enough to travel a great 
distance. Would the kind of argument used above still 
work? In particular, would the potential energy go on 
increasing uniformly with distance from the earth? 

You probably know that as one travels away from the 
earth the earth's pull, gravity, gets weaker. The force of 
gravity on an object follows the so-called inverse-square 
law. 

The radius of the earth is about 6,000km. The 
inverse-square law says that at twice this distance 
(12,000km) from the earth's centre the force is only ( 1 / 2 ) 2 = 
% of what it is at the surface of the earth; at three times the 
distance the force is (1/3) 2 = 1/9th, and so on. 




Force on a kilogram 
4 9 16 (units of 9.8N) 

Distance from centre of 
2 .3 4 earth (units of 6,000km) 



The force pulling the object back towards earth 
steadily decreases as it gets further and further away. What 
about the potential energy? It goes on increasing - but 
does it still increase steadily, in proportion to the distance 
from the earth's centre? 

Theory says it wouldn't. It says that potential energy 
will increase more and more slowly as the probe gets 
further from the earth's centre and the gravity force gets 
weaker. The increase in potential energy in going from a 
distance 6,000km above the earth's surface to a distance 
12,000km is less than the increase in going from the surface 
to a distance 6,000km. And again, the potential energy 
increase in going from 12,000 to 18,000 is less than the 
change in going from 6,000km to 12,000km, and so on. 




6 



12 




proportional 
to increase in 
potential energy 

distance (units 
of 6,000km) 



And so the kinetic energy is "used up" less and less 
quickly as the probe gets further away from earth. 

Now this raises a question. Would it be possible to give 
the probe so much kinetic energy that it would never be 
completely used up (transformed to potential energy)? If so 
the probe would just go on indefinitely moving farther and 
farther away from earth. Perhaps it seems a reasonable idea 
that since the kinetic energy is transformed less and less 
quickly there will always be some left (if you eat half a 
cake today, then tomorrow eat half the remaining half to 
leave you a quarter, then eat half the quarter . . . you will, 
in theory anyway, always have some cake left). 

On the other hand however far from the earth the 
probe is (assume the earth is the only body in the Universe) 
there is always some gravitational force on it. And so you 
might argue that no matter how far away the probe is, nor 
how fast it is still moving, it will never be able to escape 
completely, never to return, because the earth will always 
be pulling it back, however weakly. 



MAY-JUNE 1 975 



29 



Perhaps both these arguments sound reasonable to you. 
But they can't both be right! And one can't decide between 
them except by doing calculations to find out. (Or by doing 
an experiment - can one fire something off into space so 
that it never comes back?) 

This is where the computer can help. It has been 
programmed to answer different questions to do with 
launch velocity and distance travelled. Of course, it has to 
assume a theoretical basis on which to make these 
calculations. It has been programmed to assume that the 
gravitational force falls off according to the inverse-square 
law, and that there is no air resistance. Other simplifying 
assumptions have been made, such as: 

► the earth is the only body in the Universe 

► the probe is always launched vertically upwards 

The computer can tell you: 

A What launch velocity is needed to fire a probe to a 
particular chosen distance. 

B What velocity the probe has left at certain dis- 
tances, for a particular launch velocity. 

C At what distance does the probe stop and turn 
around and begin returning to earth, for a chosen 
launch velocity. 

Your job is to use the computer to help answer the problem 
posed earlier: "Is jt possible to fire something so fast that it 
will never return?" 

Decide which of the three questions (A, B or C above) 
would be the most helpful. 

For each question you will have to give some informa- 
tion. For example, if you ask for question C to be answered 
you will have to choose values for the launch velocity of 
the probe, and its mass. 

To help you find the answer to the problem use the 
computer to answer these specific questions: 

Q3 Does the mass of the probe affect how far it will travel 
for a given launch velocity, or what launch velocity it 
must be given if it is to reach a certain distance; If so, 
how? 

Q4 Suppose the last question were asked about energy 
instead of velocity - would the answer be the same? 
(Does the mass of the probe affect how far it will travel 
for a given initial kinetic energy, or what energy it 
must be given if it is to reach a certain distance?) 

Q5 The earth's radius, R is about 6,000km (6 x 10 6 m). 
What faunch velocity is needed to carry a probe from 
the earth's surface to a distance R from it? 

The next question refers to the distance from earth to 
the moon, the sun, etc., but in answering it you should 
assume, as before, that the earth is the only body in the 
Universe. 

Q6 What launch velocity is needed to get a probe as far as 
the moon (earth - moon distance is about 380 x 
W 6 m)? 

- as far away from the earth as the sun is (150 x 
W 9 m)? 

- a$ far as Pluto, the furthest known planet (about 60 
x10 l2 m)? 

- as far as the nearest star (about 40 x W l 5 m)? 

- as far as you like. 



Sample output is shown only for Question A. Run the 
program yourself to see how it works for Questions B and 
C. 



WHAT OUTPUT DO YOU WANT? 

TYPE I FOR LAUNCH VELOCITY TO PEACH A CHOSEN HEIGHT 
OR 2 FOR VELOCITY AT DIFFERENT HEIGHTS ,F0R A CHOSEN 

LAUNCH VELOCITY 
OR 3 FOR HEIGHT REACHED FOR A CHOSEN LAUNCH VELOCITY 

71 



TO INTERRUPT THE PROGRAM TO GET DIFFERENT OUTPUT 
TYPE 0 WHEN YOU ARE ASKED TO INPUT MASS, OR HEIGHT 



MASS OF PR03E (KG) 
71000 

70 



HEIGHT (M) 
7150000 



LAUNCH VELOCITY (M/S) 



1700.22 



TO GET ANOTHER OUTPUT AS LISTED ABOVE TYPE 1,2 OR 3 

TYPE 4 IF YOU WOULD LIKE A TABLE OR GRAPH SHOWING 
THE LAUIICH VELOCITY NEEDED TO REACH CHOSEN HEIGHTS 

TYPE 0 TO END THE PROGRAM 
74 



TYPE (1) 
OR (2) 
72 



FOR TABLE 
FOR GRAPH 



TOTAL HEIGHT <METRES>=?400000 



HT. 



LAUNCH VELOCITY(M/S>« 



40000. 



8 0000 • 



120000. 



160000. 



200000. 



240000. 



280000. 



32 0000. 



360000. 



400000. 



0 

*- 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

•f 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

♦ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

t 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
♦ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



2724.71 



TYPE 1 IF YOU WANT TO RE-RUN THIS PART OF THE PROGRAM 
70 





30 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Another new game from Creative Computing . . . 



SEAWAR 

DESCRIPTION 

You are the commander of a fleet of ships 
operating in enemy territory. Your task force 
consists of 9 ships, and the enemy has 9 ships. 
Whoever sinks all of the opponent's ships first wins 
the campaign. 

You, as the commander, must provide the angle 
of elevation at which the guns will be fired, 
neglecting air resistance. Your instruments will 
read the range to the target, and the initial velocity 
is held constant at about 675 meters per second. 
Since there is a 7 second time limit for entering the 
angle of elevation, you will have to act quickly! 

PROGRAMMING NOTES 

1. The program as listed will run on a Hewlett- 
Packard 2000 F system, but it can be adapted to 
other computer systems using BASIC. 

2. Statement 550 allows 7 seconds to input the 
angle of elevation. When the game is initially 
introduced, you may prefer to extend this time 
to 1 5-20 seconds. 

3. Lines 210 and 1 100 have the bell enclosed in the 
quotation marks. 

4. The initial velocity may be varied by chanqinq 
line 700. 




SOURCE 

The origin of SEAWAR is unknown. It was 
revised and submitted to us by David S. Paxton, 
Fairfax, Virginia. It was further revised and the 
writeup prepared by Mary T. Dobbs, Mathematics 
and Science Center, Glen Allen, Virginia. 



USING THE PROGRAM 

SEAWAR will help you learn about the paths of 
projectiles and what happens as the angle of 
elevation varies. 

1. First, what do you think the path of the 
projectile looks like. Make a sketch. (If you're 
still not sure, do some research in the library - 
it will help you win the battle, commander!) 

a. What angle of elevation do you think will give 
the maximum range? 

b. What will happen if you fire the guns at 07 

c. What will happen to the projectile if you fire 
it straight up? 

2. After becoming proficient at winning the battle, 
change the initial velocity of the projectile. How 
does this affect the range? 

3. For a more sophisticated look at projectiles, 
check out these programs. 

**'The Paris Gun," as listed and described in 
the Hewlett-Packard Users Group Newsletter 
Nov-Dec 1974. 

'PRJTL, Huntington I Simulation Programs - 
PHYSICS, published by Digital Equipment 
Corporation. \ 



* *i 



RUN 

SEAWAR 



SAMPLE RUN 



YOU COMMAND A FLEET OF SHIPS OPERATING IN ENEMY TERRITORY!!! 
DO YOU NEED INSTRUCTI ONS 7YES 

YOU TELL YOUR GUN CREWS THE ELEVATION TO SET THEIR GUNS. 
ELEVATION IS IN DEGREES FROM 0 TO 360. 

YOUR TASK FORCE CONSISTS OF 3 DESTROYERS* 2 CRUISERS* 
2 BATTLESHIPS, AND 2 HEAVY AIRCRAFT CARRIERS. 
THE ENEMY HAS 9 SHIPS FOR HIS DEFENSE. 

IF YOU SUCCEED IN SINKING ALL HIS SHIPS BEFORE HE SINKS 
YOURS, YOU HAVE WON. HOWEVER, IF HE SINKS ALL YOUR SHIPS 
BEFORE YOU HAVE DEFEATED HIM, YOU HAVE LOST!! 
LET US BEGIN! ! ! 

YOUR FLAGSHIP HAS DETECTED A U-BOAT APPROACHING AT 5 FATHOMS. 
YOUR SUBMARINE DETECTION EOUIMENT READS THE RANGE TO THE TARGET 
AS 2317 5 METERS. 

THE U-BOAT HAS COMMENCED FIRING TORPEDOES AT YOUR SHIPS. 
HIS FIRST TORPEDO EXPLODED 65 METERS BEHIND YOUR SHIP. 
WHAT ELEVATION 13 
FIRE! ! ! 

DEPTH CHARGE EXPLODED 2792 METERS SHORT OF TARGET. 

THE ENEMY TORPEDO EXPLODED 57 METERS IN FRONT OF YOUR 

SHIP. 

WHAT ELEVATI ON 15 
FIRE! ! ! 

DEPTH CHARGE EXPLODED RIGHT ON TOP OF THAT BABY!!! 

TARGET DESTROYED!!! *2 •• ROUNDS EXPENDED. 

YOU HAVE LOST 0 SHIPS, AND THE ENEMY HAS LOST |« 

YOUR FLAGSHIP REPORTS THE SIGHTING OF AN ENEMY 210 MM SHORE GUN 
YOUR INSTRUMENTS READ THE RANGE TO THE TARGET AS 22539 
METERS. 

THE ENEMY 210 MM SHORE GUN IS FIRING ON YOUR SHIPS! 
HIS FIRST ROUND FELL 425 METERS SHORT. 
WHAT ELEVATION 

ADMIRAL !! YOU HAVE TO BE FAST IN THIS GAME!! 
THE ENEMY 210 MM SHORE GUN SANK ONE OF YOUR DESTROYERS!! 



WHAT 



14 



ELEVATI ON 
FIRE! ! I 

SHOT FELL 710 METERS SHORT OF TARGET. 
THE ENEMY ROUND FELL 136 METERS SHORT. 
WHAT ELEVATION 14.5 

FIRE! ! ! 

BOOM 

TARGET DESTROYED!!! »2 ROUNDS EXPENDED. 

YOU HAVE LOST 1 SHIPS, AND THE ENEMY HAS LOST 2. 



SIGHTING 
RANGE TO 



YOUR FLAGSHIP REPORTS THE 
YOUR INSTRUMENTS READ THE 
METERS. 

WHAT ELEVATION 29 
FIRE! ! ! 

SHOT FELL 171 METERS SHORT OF 
THE ENEMY ROUND FELL 263 METERS 
WHAT ELEVATION 29.3 

-FIRE!! ! 

BOOM 



TARGET DESTROYED!!! *2 *• ROUNDS EXPENDED. 
YOU HAVE LOST 4 SHIPS, AND THE ENEMY HAS LOST 9. 
PEACE •••••••• 



OF AN ENEMY AIRCRAFT CARRIER 
THE TARGET AS 39 604 



TARGET. 
SHORT. 



YOU FIRED 20 ROUNDS. THE ENEMY FIRED 

YOU HAVE DECIMATED THE ENEMY 

THE BATTLE IS OVER YOU 



19 ROUNDS. 
...THAT'S NICE 
WIN! ! ! ! 



32 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



LIST 
SEAVAR 



10 


PRINT "YOU COMMAND A FLEET OF SHIPS OPERATING IN ENEMY TERRITORY 


! ! ! - 






20 


PRINT "DO YOU NEED INSTRUCTI ONS"i 


1080 


GOTO 1100 




30 


DIM Q$C 123 


1090 


PRINT " *• BOOM ••" 




40 


INPUT QS 


1100 


PRINT "" 




50 


IF QS--YES" THEN 90 


1110 


MS- "TARGET DESTROYED!!! •*" 




60 


IF QS»"NO" THEN 170 


1120 


N$-" ** ROUNDS EXPENDED." 




70 


PRINT "INPUT 'YES' OR 'NO'" 


1130 


PRINT USING 1140;MS*S*N$ 




80 


GOTO 40 


1140 


IMAGE 26A*D*21A 




90 


PRINT "YOU TELL YOUR GUN CREWS THE ELEVATION TO SET THEIR GUNS." 


1141 


PRINT USING 1142iO*A 




100 


PRINT "ELEVATION IS IN DEGREES FROM 0 TO 360." 


1142 


IMAGE "YOU HAVE LOST "*D*" SHIPS* AND THE ENEMY HAS LOST ■% 


. D* " • " 


119 


PRINT "YOUR TASK FORCE CONSISTS OF 3 DESTROYERS* 2 CRUISERS*" 


1150 


Sl-Sl+S 




180 


PRINT "2 BATTLESHIPS* AND 2 HEAVY AIRCRAFT CARRI ERS. " 


1160 


P-0 




130 


PRINT "THE ENEMY HAS 9 SHIPS FOR HIS DEFENSE. " 


1190 


GOTO 250 




140 


PRINT "IF YOU SUCCEED IN SINKING ALL HIS SHIPS BEFORE HE SINKS" 


1200 


IF Z$-"U-BOAT- THEN 2130 




150 


PRINT "YOURS* YOU HAVE WON. HOWEVER* IF HE SINKS ALL YOUR SHI PS" 1210 


PRINT USING 1220;ABS(E) 




160 


PRINT "BEFORE YOU HAVE DEFEATED HIM* YOU HAVE LOST!!" 


1220 


IMAGE -SHOT FELL ",5D*" METERS SHORT OF TARGET. • 




170 


PRINT "LET US BEGIN!!!" 


1230 


GOTO 1590 




180 


DIM Z$C 203* DSC 403* ISC 1 03 * P$C 723 *M$C 403 *N$C 403 


1250 


IF ZS="U-BOAT" THEN 2160 




190 


A-O-SI-S2-S-P1-P2-P4-0 


1260 


PRINT USING 1270;ABS(E) 




800 


REM SELECTS NAME OF ENEMY SHIP 


127 0 


IMAGE "SHELL OVERSHOT TARGET BY ",6D*" METERS* " 




210 


PRINT "" 


1280 


GOTO 1590 




220 


READ Z$ 


1300 


REM "GOOF" SHOTS 




230 


A-A+l 


1310 


PRINT " YOU SHOT A PROJECTILE* INTO THE AI R* " 




240 


GOTO 320 


1320 


PRINT " IT FELL TO THE WATER* YOU KNOW NOT WHERE." 




250 


RESTORE 


1330 


PRINT "BUT I DO* YOU IDIOT* YOU JUST SANK YOUR OWN FLEET TANKER!! 


260 


IF 0-9. OR A-9 THEN 840 


1340 


Sl-Sl+1 




270 


FOR X«l TO A 


1350 


IF P-l THEN 1590 




280 


READ ZS 


1360 


GOTO 490 




290 


NEXT X 


137 0 


PRINT "WHAT ARE YOU TRYING TO DO?? DRILL A NEW HATCH?? THE SHELL 


300 


READ ZS 


1380 


PRINT "EXPLODED IN YOUR SHIP* DESTROYING IT!!!" 




310 


A-A*l 


1385 


0-0*1 




315 


REM SELECTS BATTLE MODE 


1386 


IF 0=9 THEN 840 




320 


IF ZS- -AIRCRAFT CARRIER" THEN 39 0 


1390 


IF P-l THEN 1590 




330 


IF ZS- "U-BOAT" THEN 2000 


1400 


GOTO 820 




340 


IF ZS- "TORPEDO BOAT" THEN 360 


1410 


PRINT "WHERE DID U LEARN TO TYPE? ".B; "DEGREES EXCEEDS 360 


BY" 


350 


LET P-l 


1420 


PRINT B-360;" DEGREES." 




360 


GOTO 400 


1430 


si»sm 




390 


REST ORE 


1440 


IF P-l THEN 1590 




399 


REM BEGINS BATTLE WITH SIGHTING AND READING 


1450 


GOTO 490 




400 


PRINT 


1480 


PRINT "THE ENEMY "»Z$;" IS FIRING ON YOUR SHIPS!" 




405 


PRINT "YOUR FLAGSHIP REPORTS THE SIGHTING OF AN ENEMY ";ZS 


1490 


P4»1234»RND(RNDC0) > ♦ < RNDC 0) * 1 0) 




410 


T-43000.-30000*>RNDC0)*<RND<0)M0>*. 987654* 102 


1500 


IF P4>500 THEN 1490 




420 


IF T<10000 THEN 410 


1510 


IF P2-1 THEN 1600 




430 


S-P2-0 


1520 


IF INT(P4)<100 THEN 1800 




440 


T-INT(T) 


1530 


IF ZS* "U-BOAT" THEN 2100 




450 


IF Z$= "U-BOAT" THEN 2030 


1540 


PRINT USING 1550>INT<P4> 




460 


PRINT USING 470»*T 


1550 


IMAGE-HI S FIRST ROUND FELL "* DDD* - METERS SHORT. " 




470 


IMAGE-YOUR INSTRUMENTS READ THE RANGE TO THE TARGET AS "* DDDDD 


1560 


LET S2-S2+1 




475 


PRINT "METERS. " 


1570 


GOTO 490 




480 


IF P-l THEN 1480 


1590 


IF P2-1 THEN 1490 




490 


IF S>4 THEN 510 


1600 


P1»1250»RND(RND(0> ) *(RND( 0) * 1 0> 




500 


GOTO 540 


1610 


IF P1>P4 THEN 1600 




505 


REM AFTER 5 TRYS BY US TARGET MOVES OUT OF RANGE 


1620 


IF PKCP4-400) THEN 1600 




510 


PRINT "ALL RIGHT* BAD SHOT* THE TARGET HAS MOVED OUT OF" 


1630 


IF PI < 100 THEN 17 10 




520 


PRINT "RANGE !!! LET'S TRY IT AGAIN !!!" 


1640 


LET P4-P1 




525 


Sl-Sl+S 


1650 


S2-S2+1 




530 


GOTO 320 


1660 


IF Z$-"U-BOAT" THEN 2190 




535 


REM INPUT ANGLE OF ELEVATION 


167 0 


PRINT USING 1680;iNT(Pl) 




540 


PRINT "WHAT ELEVATION ** "; 


168 0 


IMAGE-THE ENEMY ROUND FELL "*DDD* " METERS SHORT*" 




550 


ENTER 7*L*B 


1700 


GOTO 490 




551 


PRINT 


1710 


S2-S2+1 




560 


IF L#-256 THEN 590 


1720 


LET P2-1 




57 0 


PRINT " ADMIRAL !! YOU HAVE TO BE FAST IN THIS GAME!!"730 


GOSUB 1850 




580 


GOTO 1590 


17 50 


PRINT "THE ENEMY ";Z$;" SANK ".*DS 




590 


PRINT " FIRE! ! !" 


1760 


0-0+1 




600 


S-S+l 


177 0 


IF 0-9 THEN 840 




620 


IF B>360 THEN 1410 


1780 


IF DS«"YOUR LAST BATTLESHIP!!" THEN 840 




630 


IF B<0 THEN 7 50 


1790 


GOTO 490 




640 


IF B-0 THEN 77 0 


1800 


P2-1 




650 


IF B-90 THEN 98 0 
IF B>330 THEN 77 0 


1810 


GOSUB 1850 




660 


1820 


PRINT "IN FACT* HE JUST SANK ",DS 




67 0 


IF B>180 THEN 1370 


1830 


0-0-U 




680 


IF B>150 THEN 1300 


1840 


GOTO 1770 




690 


IF B>90 THEN 1020 


1850 


RESTORE 




699 


REM DISTANCE FROM TARGET CALCULATED 


1860 


FOR C-l TO (9*0) 




700 


Vl-675.285 


187 0 


READ D$ 




705 


E-INT(T-(Vl*2/9.80665»SIN(2*B/57.3)>) 


1880 


NEXT C 




710 


IF ABS(E) <« 100 THEN 1050 


1890 


READ DS 




720 


IF E>100 THEN 1200 


1920 


DATA "U-BOAT"* "210 MM SHORE GUN"* "70* 000 TON CRUISER" 




730 


IF E<-100 THEN 1250 


1930 


DATA "BATTLESHIP"* -TORPEDO BOAT"* "HEAVY FRIGATE" 




740 


REM "GOOF "SHOTS 


1940 


DATA "E-TYPE DESTROYER"* "GUI DED-MI SSILE SHI P" * "AI RC RAFT CARRIER- 


750 


PRINT "GUN BACKFIRED* KILLING CREW!" 


1950 


DATA - ONE OF YOUR DESTROYERS !»"* -YOUR HEAVY CRUISER!!" 




760 


GOTO 820 


1960 


DATA "ANOTHER OF YOUR DESTROYERS! !"*"ONE OF YOUR BATTLESHI PS ! ! " 


770 


PRINT "WHAT ARE YOU TRYING TO-DO? KILL SOME FISH? THE SHELL- 


197 0 


DATA "YOUR LAST DESTROYER !!"* "Y OUR AIRCRAFT CARRIER!!" 




780 


PRINT "EXPLODED UNDER WATER FIFTY METERS FROM YOUR SHIP!!!" 


197 5 


DATA "YOUR LIGHT CRUI SER ! ! "* "YOUR LAST AIRCRAFT CARRIER!!" 




790 


GOTO 1590 


198 0 


DATA "YOUR LAST BATTLESHIP!!" 




820 


PRINT " ADMIRAL PLEASE !!!!" 


1990 


RETURN 




830 


GOTO 1590 


2000 


PRINT "YOUR FLAGSHIP HAS DETECTED A U-BOAT APPROACHING AT 5 


»J 


839 


REM PEACE AND WINNER 


2005 


PRINT "FATHOMS* " 




840 




2010 


P-l 




850 


PRINT 


2020 


GOTO 410 




860 


PRINT 


2030 


PRINT "YOUR SUBMARINE DETECTION EQUIMENT READS THE RANGE TO 


THE". 


87 0 


PRINT 


2031 


PRINT "TARGET" 




880 


PRINT USING 890;S1*S2 


2040 


T»INT(T-1500) 




890 


IMAGE "YOU FIRED "*DD* " ROUNDS. THE ENEMY FIRED "*DD* " ROUNDS* " 


2050 


IF T<0 THEN 410 




900 


IF 0-9 THEN 920 


2060 


PRINT USING 2070*T 




910 


IF A-9 THEN 950 


2070 


IMAGE "AS "*5D*" METERS*" 




920 


PRINT "ALL OF YOUR SHIPS HAVE BEEN SUNK. SO SORRY" 


2080 


PRINT "THE U-BOAT HAS COMMENCED FIRING TORPEDOES AT YOUR SHIPS*" 


930 




2090 


GOTO 1490 




940 


GOTO 2220 


2100 


PRINT USING 21 10J (INT(P4)-50> 


• 


950 
960 




2110 


IMAGE "HIS FIRST TORPEDO EXPLODED "*3D*" METERS BEHIND YOUR 
GOTO 1560 


SHIP." 




2120 


970 


GOTO 2220 


2130 


PRINT USING 2140,ABS<E> 




975 


REM "GOOF" SHOTS 


2140 


IMAGE-DEPTH CHARGE EXPLODED "*4D#" METERS SHORT OF TARGET*" 




980 


PRINT "YOU IDIOT!! YOU SHOT STRAIGHT UP!!* AND THE SHELL" 


2150 


GOTO 1590 




990 


PRINT "LANDED ON YOUR OWN GUN POSITION* DESTROYING IT!!!" 


2160 


PRINT USING 2170*ABS<E) 




1000 


GOTO 1590 


2170 


IMAGE "DEPTH CHARGE EXPLODED ",4D*" METERS AFT OF TARGET." 




1020 


PRINT "HEY STUPID* YOU'RE FIRING ON YOU OWN SHIPS!!!" 


2180 


GOTO 1590 




1030 


GOTO 1590 


2190 


PRINT USING 2200; ( INTCPU-50) 




1040 


REM ENEMY SHIP SUNK 


2200 


IMAGE "THE ENEMY TORPEDO EXPLODED "*3D*" METERS IN FRONT OF 


YOUR" 


1050 


IF ZS- "U-BOAT" THEN 1070 


2201 


PRINT "SHIP." 




1060 


GOTO 1090 


2210 


GOTO 490 




1070 


PRINT "DEPTH CHARGE EXPLODED RIGHT ON TOP OF THAT BABY ! ! ! - 


2220 


END 





Relativity for computers: All arithmetic 



Three hundred years ago Isaac New- 
ton discovered that to solve the prob- 
lems of universal gravitation he had set 
himself he had to invent the branch of 
mathematics called calculus. Eighty 
years ago, in formulating special rela- 
tivity, Einstein caused a revolution in 
physics by making mass a variable and 
uniting space and time, but his equa- 
tions, though changing the content of 
Newton's, followed Newton's calculus 
lead. Calculus, in fact dominates class- 
ical and most modern physics. For three 
centuries it has been the physicist's best 
mathematical friend. 

But now the world has digital com- 
puters. Digital computers can do calcu- 
lations with incredible speed. They have 
prodigious memories. People want to 
use them wherever a lot of computation 
must be done in a short time. But 
computers are not as smart as Newton, 



let alone Einstein, or even a college 
freshman. They can't do calculus. They 
can only do arithmetic, but they do it 
very fast. 

So a group at the Computer Sciences 
Department of the University of Wis- 
consin at Madison under the direction 
of Donald Greenspan is working out a 
reformulation of Newton's and Ein- 
stein's work, not conceptually, but 
mathematically, trying to get it on an 
arithmetic basis so a computer can 
handle it. They have been successful 
with Newtonian classical mechanics and 
fluid dynamics. Greenspan's latest paper 
(UW's Computer Sciences Technical 
Report #232) details the first part of 
a method for special relativity. Later 
they hope to go to general relativity. 

The sticking points in calculus are 
the concepts of limit and continuity. 
Limit is a way of getting around Zeno's 





// Newton looks disapproving and Einstein surprised, it may be because the 
calculus is being calculated out of their theoretical derivations. 



Nuclear Research 
Preliminary Design 
Administration 
Rocket Engine 

Design 
Project Engineer 
Management 

Nuclear Warheaa 
Hydrogen Device 



Das Wl)i3kibben grupe. 
Das Uppen-bas-klaubsen grupe. 
Das Oubfgesctjmarbfen grupe. 
Firensctjpiffer mib sdjmoken-unb-sctjnorfen. 

Das Kaunbsctjolber unb Kebbisdjei3 grupe. 
Das Sctjweftenoubfer. 
Das Ul3erenbalben grupe. 

Das eargesctjplitten laubenboomer. 

Das eargescljpliffen laubenboomer mit ein 

grosse tjollengraunb unb alles kapuf. 



00 

>| 

2 o 



• 8 



8 



o p 



ooo 



m 



ft 6 » * QO 



b o o ae, 



yivt 



0 .2 

Q) CO 

II 
to a 

2 „ 

.2-0- 
.8 8 8 

E a i 
8§<o 

1 .3? 

lis 



paradox, which so bedeviled ancient 
Greek mathematicians, and showing 
that an infinite succession of infinitely 
small steps can in fact lead up to but 
never surpass a limit that is neverthe- 
less a finite number. Continuity is a 
property of the sort of equations called 
functions. A function sets up a relation 
between an (independent) variable quan- 
tity or quantities and another (depend- 
ent) variable, so that, knowing the value 
of the independent variable, one can 
calculate the dependent one. A function 
is continuous at a point if an infinitesi- 
mal change in the independent variable 
yields a new finite value for the depend- 
ent variable that is only infinitesimally 
different from the previous one. These 
two concepts are the keys to the devel- 
opment of integral and differential calcu- 
lus, and when they had been evolved, 
1 8th-, 19th- and 20th-century physics 
and engineering were on their way. 

Yvhat the Wisconsin group has 
achieved is a way of replacing the infi- 
nitesimal steps with finite ones — finite- 
difference equations — that nevertheless 
come out to the same thing, in the 
limit, as the continuous processes of 
calculus. And it works in practice. 
"What we do runs," says Greenspan. 
'Everything we do must go on the 
computer. Doing it in theory is not 
enough." 

Greenspan says the method should 
be of wide use to physicists and en- 
gineers with all kinds of mechanical, 
fluid dynamical and special relativistic 
computations to do. But it is much 
more than that. 

As they were working through the 
method, the group found, in Green- 
span's words, that they were doing 
physics arithmetically. The conservation 
laws that define and characterize New- 
tonian and Einsteinian physics come 
out of the arithmetic procedure. It is 
thus not merely a crutch for the com- 
puter but an alternate way of deriving 
and justifying the physically meaningful 
mathematical statements that have 
traditionally been gotten by calculus 
methods. And that could work an 
important change in high-school cur- 
ricula. 

Calculus — for reasons considered 
good and sufficient by mathematics 
teacher — has traditionally been reserved 
for the first or even second year of 
college. High-school physics teaching 
has suffered from the lack. Much of its 
content had to be brought in on faith 
or justified by handwaving methods. 
The new formulation could provide a 
way of making high-school physics 
more interesting by deriving its contents 
in a satisfactory way that the pupils 
could follow. Greenspan is enthusiastic 
about the idea of a change, but also 
extremely realistic. k, You have 300 
years of vested interest in calculus to 
overcome," he says. □ 



Contest! 



CONTEST RULES 



Contests are open only to subscribers. 

All contest entries must include the following information: 
your name, home address, home phone, age, school or company 
affiliation, contest problem number and your answer(s). Problems 
that call for the use of a computer must aJso include program listing, 
output, paper tape or card deck. Entries should be in BASIC or 
FORTRAN and should not use unique features of a particular 
compiler. If you are a high school student, you should also include 
the name, home address and phone number of your teacher. 

Entries not including the above information will be 
automatically disqualified. Entries cannot be acknowledged. 

The winner will receive a two-year subscription extension (or 
gift subscription) to Creative Computing. Second and third place 
winners will receive a one-year subscription extension (or gift 
subscription). Winners will be announced in Creative Computing 
two issues from now. 

The winner, along with two associates (teacher, friends, etc.) 
will form a committee to judge the next contest. Contest entries 
may be judged on computer technique, uniqueness of the program, 
form of the program or output, length, running time, etc. Decisions 
of this committee are final. 

All correct entries (winners or not) will go into a year-end 
drawing for $25, $1 5, and $10 prizes. 



Deadline for entries: July 31, 1975 



CONTEST PROBLEM 5. ROMAN NUMERAL 

Write a program to convert any number from 1 
to 3000 to its equivalent Roman numeral. The 
seven Roman symbols are: 



M 
D 
C 
L 
X 
V 
I 



1000 
500 
100 
50 
10 
5 
1 



The rules for forming Roman numerals are: 

1. If a symbol precedes one of smaller value, its 
value is added. 

2. If a symbol precedes one of larger value, its 
value is subtracted; then the difference is added 
to the rest of the number. 

3. Numbers are written as simple as possible using 
only C, X, and I as subtrahends. Some examples 
are MCMLXIV, 1964; DXLIX, 549. 

Your program should accept as input the deci- 
mal number and output the Roman numeral. 
Convert the following numbers in your contest 
entry: 1, 14, 400, 549, 999, 1964, 1975, 2500, 
2994, 3000. 



CONTEST PROBLEM 6. SEVEN DIGITS 

In the octonary (modulus 7) system, write a 
program to find the seven 7-digit squares which 
contain no duplicate digits. Here is one: 1242 2 = 
1567204. Note: a trivial, "brute force" entry will 
not win. 



CONTEST 2 RESULTS 

Judged by Melinda Harp, Augusta, GA 

1st Marty Handlon, Henry Ford II School, Sterling Hts., Ml 

2nd Joel Harrison, Livingston High School, NJ 

3rd Robert Marian, Irondequoit HS, Rochester, NY 

HM Scott Davidson, W. New Mexico U., Silver City, NM 

James Gingerich, Bethany Christian HS, Goshen, IN 

Ronald Li, Ardsley High School, NY 

Mike Sullivan, Curtis Jr. HS, Sudbury, MA 

Most of the programs used similar logic. Marty's was easy to 
follow, had a nice method for checking digits, and used the 
computer for testing that all conditions were met. Some of the 
others left out desirable checks on the numbers generated while 
having some other helpful features such as (1) Remarks and 
Comments, (2) Checks for unique solution and <3) General formulas 
for setting up and checking digits. 



Button, Button 

Two, count them, two Creative Computing buttons are 
now available! Double WOW!i* Order either one or both 
today. Only 30 cents in coin, stamps, M. O., etc. for each 
button desired. Be sure to state which one you want. 

Order buttons directly from Ye Olde Button Maker in 
the Woods (and make checks payable to): 

Computra 

ATTN: Creative Computing Buttons 
RR9, Box 492D 
Muncie, IN 47302 




MAY-JUNE 1975 



35 



PLUS CA CHAN6E 
PLUS CA 

LA MhMECHOSE 




IN THE BEGINNING the Project 
Manager created the Programming 
Staff. The Programming Staff was 
without form and structure. And the 
Project Manager said, "Let there be 
Organization;" "and there was Organi- 
zation. And the Project Manager saw 
that Organization was good; and the 
Project Manager separated the workers 
from the supervisors, and he called the 
supervisors — "Management," and he 
called the workers — "Exempt." 

And the Project Manager said. "Let 
there be a mission in the midst of the 
Organization, and let it separate the 
workers, one from another." And the 
Project Manager created the mission 
and he called it — "The System." And 
the Project Manager separated those 
who were to benefit from The System 
from those who were to build it. And 
he called the former — "Users," and he 
called the latter — "Programmers." 

And the Project Manager said, "Let 
all the Programmers in the Organiza- 
tion be gathered together into one 
place, and let a Chief Programmer be 
brought up to lead them." And it was 
so. And the Project Manager saw that 
he was competent. 



Genesis 

Release 2.5 

by Michael L. Coleman 
with illustrations by Stew Burgess 

And the Project Manager said unto 
the Chief Programmer, "Create for me 
a schedule, so that I may look upon the 
schedule and know the Due Date." 



And the Chief Programmer went 
among his staff and consulted with 
them. And the staff was divided into 
two parts, one part was called — "Ana- 



SCHEDULE 



D£si£N Test 



I* 



T£6t 



? = HARTREES 
CONSTANT 




Reprinted with permission from Datamation, November 1973. 
Copyright 1973 Technical Publishing Co., Greenwich, CT 06830. 



36 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




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Poster courtesy of Sam Harbison and 
Princeton Univ. Computer Center 



SmV !! m'iVi/Sm'm'm^SSS!^^^ 



Another new game from Creative Computing . 



SUPER STAR TREK 



X 



History 



by David Ahl 



Many versions of Star Trek have been kicking around 
various college campuses since the late sixties. I recall 
playing one at Carnegie-Mellon Univ. in 1967 or 68, and a 
very different one at Berkeley. However, these were a far 
cry from the one written by Mike Mayfield of Centerline 
Engineering and/or Custom Data. This was written for an 
HP2000C and completed in October 1972. It became the 
''standard" Star Trek in February 1973 when it was put in 
the HP contributed program library and onto a number of 
HP Data Center machines. 

In the summer of 1973, I converted the HP version to 
BASIC-PLUS for DEC's RSTS-1 1 compiler and added a few 
bits and pieces while I was at it. Mary Cole at DEC 
contributed enormously to this task too. Later that year I 
published it under the name SPACWR (Space War - in 
retrospect, an incorrect name) in my book 101 Basic 
Computer Games. It is difficult today to find an interactive 
computer installation that does not have one of these 
versions of Star Trek available. 

Of course, a program like Star Trek does not stay static 
for long. Of the many extensions I have seen, by far the 
best is by Bob Leedom of Westinghouse Defense and 
Electronic Systems Center. It's presented here as SUPER 
STAR TREK. 




Quadrant Nomenclature 



Recently, certain critics have professed confusion as to 
the origin of the "quadrant" nomenclature used on all 
standard CG (Cartesian Galactic) maps. Naturally, for 
anyone with the remotest knowledge of history, no 
explanation is necessary; however, the following synopsis 
should suffice for the critics: 

As every schoolboy knows, most of the intelligent 
civilizations in the Milky Way had originated galactic 
designations of their own choosing well before the Third 
Magellanic Conference*, at which the so-called "2 6 Agree- 
ment" was reached. In that historic document, the partici- 
pant cultures agreed, in all two-dimensional representations 
of the galaxy, to specify 64 major subdivisions, ordered as 
an 8 x 8 matrix. This was partially in deference to the Earth 
culture (which had done much in the initial organization of 
the Federation), whose century-old galactic maps had 
always shown 16 major regions named after celestial 
landmarks of the Earth sky. Each of these regions was 
divided into four "quadrants," designated by ancient 
"Roman Numerals" (the origin of which has been lost). 

To this day, the official logs of starships originating on 
near-Earth starbases still refer to the major galactic areas as 
"quadrants." 

The relation between the Historical and Standard 
nomenclatures is shown in the simplified CG map below. 

"Conference held at Federation Starbase 1, Stardates 1016-1021. 



8 



ANTARES 
II III IV 

RIGEL 

II III IV 

PROCYON 
II III IV 

VEGA 

II III IV 

CANOPUS 
II III IV 

ALTAI R 
II III IV 

SAGITTARIUS 
II III IV 

POLLUX 
II III IV 



6 7 8 

SIRIUS 

II III IV 

DENEB 

II III IV 

CAPELLA 
II III IV 

BETELGEUSE 
II III IV 

ALDEBARAN 
II III IV 

REGULUS 
II III I 

ARCTURUS 
II III IV 

SPICA 

II III IV 



40 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Super STAR TREK 
Rules and Notes 



by Robert Leedom and David Ahl 

1. OBJECTIVE: You are Captain of the starship "Enter- 
prise with a mission to seek and destroy a fleet of Klingon 
warships (usually about 17) which are menacing the United 
Federation of Planets. You have a specified number of 
stardates in which to complete your mission. You also have 
two or three Federation starbases for resupplying your ship. 

2. You will be assigned a starting position somewhere in the 
galaxy. The galaxy is divided into an 8 x 8 quadrant grid. 
The astronomical name of a quadrant is called out upon 
entry into a new region. (See "Quadrant Nomenclature.") 
Each quadrant is further divided into an 8 x 8 section grid. 

3. On a section diagram, the following symbols are used: 



<*> 
ttt 



Enterprise 
Klingon 



>!< 



Starbase 
Star 



4. You have eight commands available to you. (A detailed 
description of each command is given in the program 
instructions.) 



NAV 

SRS 

LRS 

PHA 

TOR 

SHE 

DAM 

COM 



Navigate the Starship by setting course and 
warp engine speed. 

Short-range sensor scan (one quadrant) 

Long-range sensor scan (9 quadrants) 

Phaser control (energy gun) 

Photon torpedo control 

Shield control (protects against phaser fire) 

Damage and state-of-repair report 

Call library computer 



5. Library computer options are as follows (more complete 
descriptions are in program instructions): 



0 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



Cumulative galactic record 
Status report 

Photon torpedo course data 
Starbase navigation data 
Direction/distance calculator 
Quadrant nomenclature map 



6. Certain reports on the ship's status are made by officers 
of the Enterprise who appeared on the original Roddenber- 
ry TV Show - Spock, Scott, Uhura, Chekov, etc. 

7. Klingons are non-stationary within their quadrants. If 
you try to maneuver on them, they will move and fire on 
you. 

8. Firing and damage notes: 

A. Phaser fire diminishes with increased distance be- 
tween combatants. 

B. If a Klingon zaps you hard enough (relative to your 
shield strength) he will generally cause damage to 
some pap of your ship with an appropriate "Damage 
Control report resulting. 




C. If you don't zap a Klingon hard enough (relative to 
his shield strength) you won't damage him at all. 
Your sensors will tell the story. 

D. Damage control will let you know when out-of- 
commission devices have been completely repaired. 

9. Your engines will automatically shut down if you should 
attempt to leave the galaxy, or if you should try to 
maneuver through a star, a starbase, or - heaven help you 
- a Klingon warship. 

j 

10. In a pinch, or if you should miscalculate slightly some 
shield control energy will be automatically diverted to warp 
engine control (if your shields are operational!). 

11. While you're docked at a Starbase, a team of tech- 
nicians can repair your ship (if you're willing for them to 
spend the time required - and the repairmen always 
underestimate ...).> 

- 

12. If, to save maneuvering time toward the end of the 
game, you should cold-bloodedly destroy a Starbase you 
get a nasty note from Starfleet Command. If you destroy 
your last Starbase, you lose the game! (For those who think 
this is too harsh a penalty, delete lines 5360 - 5390, and 
you II just get a "you dumdum! "-type message on all future 
status reports.) 

13. End game logic has been "cleaned up" in several spots, 
and it is possible to get a new command after successfully 
completing your mission (or, after resigning your old one). 

14. For those of you with certain types of CRT/keyboards 
setups (e.g. Westinghouse 1600), a "bell" character is 
inserted at appropriate spots to cause the following items to 
flash on and off on the screen: 

• The Phrase "*RED*" (as in Condition: Red) 

• The character representing your present quadrant in 
the cumulative galactic record printout. 

15. PROGRAMMING NOTES: This version of Star Trek 
was created for a Data General Nova 800 system with 32k 
of core. So that it will fit, the instructions are separated 

EaT.™ mam P r °9 ram via a CHAIN. One minor problem: 
RANDOMIZE (Statement 160) should be moved after the 
return from the chained instructions, say to statement 245. 
It appears that the program should run in DEC BASIC- 
PLUS but its going to be fun/trouble/challenging to 
convert it to DEC 8-family, HP, Honeywell, or other 
machines. 

16. Paper tapes and other things. Neither Creative Com- 
puting nor Westinghouse are in the business of making and 
distributing paper tapes. Please DO NOT write either of us 
(Bob Leedom, David Ahl) asking for paper tapes. If you 
want to write us about other things try: 



Robert C. Leedom. 
3429 Rollingview Ct. 
Ellicott City, Md. 21043 



or 



David H. Ahl 
Creative Computing 



MAY-JUNE 1975 



41 



* 



0030 

0010 

8050 

0060 
00/0 



0640, 0720. 0780. 0860, 0910. 0960 



0100 
0110 
0120 
0130 

0140 



0170 
0180 
0190 
0200 
0210 



REM INSTRUCTIONS FOR "STREK" GAME 
REM VERSION "STINST2" 1.2/8/74 
DIM R$C3] 
FOR I-l TO 9 

ON I THEN GOSUB 0240. 0360. 0540. 

PRINT 

PRINT "(TO CONTINUE. HIT 'RETURN')" 
PRINT 
INPUT AS 
NEXT I 

**. WHEN VOU SEE 'COMMAND ?' PRINTED. ENTER ONE OF THE L FRRI " 
COMMANDS CNAV. SRS. LRS. PHA. TOR. SHE. DAM. COM. OR XXX). » 
IF VOU SHOULD TVPE IN AN ILLEGAL COMMAND. VOU'LL. GET A SHORT" 

LIST OF THE LEGAL COMMANDS PRINTED OUT. " 
SOME COMMANDS REQUIRE VOU TO ENTER DATA. (FOR EXAMPLE. THE" 
'NAV COMMAND COMES BACK WITH 'COURSE (1-9) ?' > IF VOU" 
ZTTf 12 ILLEGAL DATA <L IKE NEGATIVE NUMBERS). THAT COMMAND " 
MILL. BE ABORTED. M 



0010 



"STREK7", 1/12/73 RCL 3 



THEN GOTO 025O 



0240 

0250 
0260 
0270 
0280 



0300 
0310 
0320 
0330 
0340 



0360 
0370 
0380 
0390 

0400 
0410 

0420 



PRINT "1 
PRINT " 
PRINT "2 
PRINT " 
PRINT "3 
PRINT " 
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PRINT 

PRINT "HIT <CAR RET) TO CONTINUE " 
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REM *** EXIT 
PRINT 

PRINT » INSTRUCTIONS FOR ** STAR TREK **» 

PRINT 

PRINT "THE GALAXV IS DIVIDED INTO AN 8 X 8 QUADRANT GRID. " 

PRINT -AND EACH QUADRANT IS FURTHER DIVIDED INTO AN 8X8 SECTOR GRID » 

PRINT 

PRINT » VOU WILL BE ASSIGNED A STARTING POINT SOMEWHERE IN THE GAI AXV" 
PRINT "TO BEGIN A TOUR OF DUTV AS COMMANDER OF THE STARSHIP 'ENTERPRISE'; 
PRINT "VOUR MISSION: TO SEEK AND DESTROV THE FLEET OF Kl INGON WARSHIPS" 
PRINT "WHICH ARE MENACING THE UNITED FEDERATION OF PLANETS" ""^"^ 

RETURN 
PRINT 

PRINT "VOU HAVE THE FOLLOWING COMMANDS AVAILABLE TO VOU AS- 
PRINT "CAPTAIN OF THE STARSHIP:" 

PRINT "'NAV COMMAND ■ WARP ENGINE CONTROL — » 



0440 
0450 
0460 
0470 

04B0 



4 3 2' 



5 !• 



6 7 8' 
COURSE" 



0510 

0520 
0530 
0540 



0590 
0600 
B618 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT ' 
PRINT ' 
PRINT 1 
PRINT 1 
PRINT ' 
PRINT ' 
PRINT ' 
PRINT ' 
RETURN 

PRINT "'SRS' COMMAND - SHORT RANGE SENSOR SCAN- 
PRINT " SHOWS VOU A SCAN OF VOUR PRESENT QUADRANT. " 

SVMBOLOGV ON VOUR SENSOR SCREEN IS AS FOLLOWS " 
<*> » VOUR STARSHIP'S POSITION" 
+++ « KL INGON BATTLE CRUISER" 

>•< « FEDERATION STARBASE ( REFUEL /REPAIR/RE- ARM HERE!)" 
* - STAR" 

A CONDENSED 'STATUS REPORT' WILL AL.SO BE PRESENTED. » 



COURSE IS IN A CIRCULAR NUMERICAL 
VECTOR ARRANGEMENT AS SHOWN. 
INTEGER AND REAL VALUES MAV BE 
USED. (THUS. COURSE 1 5 IS HALF- 
WAV BETWEEN 1 AND 2. ) 

VALUES MAV APPROACH 9. 0. WHICH 
ITSELF IS EQUIVALENT TO 1. 0. " 

ONE WARP FACTOR IS THE SIZE OF" 
ONE QUADRANT. THEREFORE. TO GET" 
FROM QUADRANT 6. 5 TO 5. 3. VOU 
USE COURSE 3. WARP FACTOR 1. " 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 



06-10 
0650 
0660 
0678 
0680 



0700 
0710 
0720 
0730 
0740 
0750 
0760 
0770 



RETURN 

PRINT "'LRS' COMMAND ■ LONG RANGE SENSOR SCAN" 

SHOWS CONDITIONS IN SPACE FOR ONE QUADRANT ON EACH SIDE" 
OF THE ENTERPRISE < WHICH IS IN THE MIDDLE OF THE SCAN)" 
THE SCAN IS CODED IN THE FORM '###'. WHERE THE UNITS DIGIT" 

IL/!f J£E^ R ° F STRRS ' TENS DIQIT 15 THE NUMBER OF STARBASES. 
AND HUNDREDS DIGIT IS THE NUMBER OF KLINGONS. " 

EXAMPLE — 207 - 2 KLINGONS. NO STARBASES. 7 STARS. " 



0790 

080ft 
0810 
0820 



0850 
0868 
8878 
0880 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
RETURN 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
RETLIRN 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
RETURN 



'PHA' COMMAND - PHASER CONTROL." 

ALLOWS VOU TO DESTROV THE KL INGON BATTLE CRUISERS BV" 
ZAPPING THEM WITH SUITABLV LARGE UNITS OF ENERGV TO" 
DEPLETE THEIR SHIELD POWER (REMEMBER. KLINGONS HAVE" 
PHASERS. TOO!)" 

"'TOR' COMMAND ■ PHOTON TORPEDO CONTROL" 

" TORPEDO COURSE IS THE SAME AS USED IN WARP ENGINE CONTROL " 
" IF VOU HIT THE Kl INGON VESSEL. HE IS OESTROVED AND" 
" CANNOT FIRE BACK AT VOU. IF VOU MISS. VOU ARE SUBJECT TO" 
" HIS PHASER FIRE. " 

NOTE: THE LIBRARV-COMPUTER ('COM' COMMAND) HAS AN" 

OPTION TO COMPUTE TORPEDO TRAJECTORV FOR VOU (OPTION 2). 



0910 
0920 
0930 
0940 
0950 
0*60 



0990 
1000 
1010 
1020 
1030 



1050 
1060 
1070 
1880 
1090 
1100 
1110 
1120 
1130 
1140 
1150 
1160 
1170 



PRINT "'SHE' COMMAND - SHIELD CONTROL " 

PRINT • DEFINES NUMBER Of- ENERGV UNITS TO BE ASSIGNED TO SHIELDS. " 
PRINT ENERGV IS TAKEN FROM TOTAL SHIP'S ENERGV. NOTE THAT THE" 
PRINT " TOTAL ENERGV INCLUDES SHIELD ENERGV. " 
RETURN 

PRINT "'DAM' COMMAND - DAMAGE CONTROL REPORT" 

PRINT GIVES STATE OF REPAIR OF ALL DEVICES. WHERE A NEGATIVE" 
PRINT " 'STATE OF REPAIR' SHOWS THAT THE DEVICE IS TEMPORARILY 
PRINT - DAMAGED. " 
RETURN 

PRINT "'COM' COMMAND - LIBRARV-COMPUTER" 
PRINT " THE LIBRARV-COMPUTER CONTAINS SIX OPTIONS " 
OPTION 0 » CUMULATIVE GALACTIC RECORD" 

WHICH SHOWS COMPUTER MEMORV OF THE RESULTS OF ALL PREVIOUS" 
LONG RANGE SENSOR SCANS. " 
OPTION 1 - STATUS REPORT" 

WHICH SHOWS THE NUMBER OF KLINGONS. STARDATES. AND STARBASES' 
REMAINING IN THE GAME. " 
OPTION 2 * PHOTON TORPEDO DATA" 

WHICH GIVES DIRECTIONS AND DISTANCE FROM THE ENTERPRISE" 
TO ALL KLINGONS IN VOUR QUADRANT" 
OPTION 3- STARBASE NAV DATA" 

WHICH GIVES DIRECTION AND DISTANCE TO ANV STARBASE" 
WITHIN VOUR QUADRANT" 
OPTION 4 - DIRECTIONS I STANCE CALCULATOR" 

WHICH ALLOWS VOU TO ENTER COORDINATES FOR" 
DIRECTIONS I STANCE CALCULATIONS. " 
OPTION 3 « GALACTIC 'REGION NAME' MAP" 

WHICH PRINTS THE NAMES OF THE SIXTEEN MAJOR GALACTIC 
REGIONS REFERRED TO IN THE GAME. " 



PRINT ' 
PRINT ' 
PRINT ' 
PRINT ' 
PRINT * 
PRINT " 
PRINT » 
PRINT " 
PRINT " 
PRINT " 
PRINT " 
PRINT " 
PRINT " 
PRINT " 
PRINT " 
PRINT " 
PRINT " 
PRINT " 
RETURN 
END 



0030 
0018 
0050 
0060 
0870 
0080 
0090 

0100 
0110 
0120 
01 30 
0148 

0150 
0160 
0170 
0180 
0190 
0200 
0210 
0228 
0230 
0240 
0238 
0260 
0270 
0280 
0290 
0300 
0310 
0320 
0338 
0340 
0330 
8360 
0370 
0380 
0390 

0400 

0410 
0420 
0430 



REM *** 
REM *** 



REM [VERSION 
REM 
REM 

REM *** *** STAR TREK *** *** 

REM *** SIMULATION OF A MISSION OF THE STARSHIP ENTERPRISE. 
REM *** AS SEEN ON THE STAR TREK TV SHOW. 

REM *** ORIGINAL PROGRAM BV MIKE MAVFIELD; MODIFIED VERSION 
REM *** PLIBL I SHED IN DEC'S "101 BASIC GAMES". BV DAVE AN 
REM *** MODIFICATIONS TO THE LATTER (PLUS DEBUGGING) BV 
REM *** BOB LEEDOM — APRIL & DECEMBER 1974, 

REM *** WITH A LITTLJ? HELP FROM HIS FRIENDS 

REM *** COMMENTS. EPITHETS. AND SUGGESTIONS SOLICITED 

REM *** ADDRESS TO . R. C. LEEDOM 

WESTINGHOUSE DEFENSE & ELECTRONIC SVSTEMS CNTR 
BOX 746. M S. 338 BALTIMORE. MD 21283 

RANDOMIZE 

PRINT TAB(15); "* * * STAR TREK * * *" 
PRINT 

PRINT "DO VOU NEED INSTRUCTIONS (VES/NO)"; 
DIM ASC20 3 
INPUT A* 

IF A*<>"VES" THEN GOTO 8248 
CHAIN "ST INST" 

REM PROGRAM BEGINS HERE 

DIM Z*C 72 3. Q»C 72 3. R*C 72 3. S*f 72 3 
D I M G1*C 158 3. G2*f 16 3. G3*C 3 3. G4*C 3 3 
FOR 1=1 TO 72 

LET Z*C I. I3»" " 
LET Q*f I. I 3»" " 
LET RSC I. I 3-" " 
LET S*C I. I 3«" " 
NEXT I 

DIM Of. 8. 8 3. CC 9, 2 3. Kf. 3. 3 3. NC 3 3. ZC 8. 8 3 
DIM 01*C 40 3. C*f 10 3 
DIM A1*C20 3, T*C6 3 
DIM D« 96 3. 03*C 60 3 
LET T«INT(RND(l)+20+20)*100 
LET T0-T 
LET T9-30 
LET D0=0 
LET E0-3000 

E«E0 • 
P-10 



0450 
0460 
0470 
0488 
0490 
0500 
0510 
0320 
0530 
0540 
0550 
0360 
03/0 
0580 
0390 
8600 
0610 
0620 
0630 
0648 
0650 
8660 
0670 
0680 
0690 

0700 

0710 

0/20 

0730 
0/40 

0/50 

0760 
0770 
0780 
0/90 
0880 
08.1.0 
0820 
0830 
0840 
0850 
0860 
0870 
0880 
0898 
0980 
0910 
0920 
0930 
0940 
0950 
0960 
09/0 
0980 
0990 

1000 
1010 
1020 
1030 
1040 
1050 

106O 

10/0 

1088 
1090 

1108 

1110 

1120 

1130 

1.1.40 

1150 

1160 

1170 

1188 

1190 
1200 
1210 
1220 
1238 
1240 
1258 
1260 
1270 
1288 
1290 



LET 
LET 
LET 

LET S9«288 
LET S-0 

DEF FND(D)=SGR((KC 1 . 1 3— SI ) """2+ ( Kf I. 2 3— S2)~2) 
REM INITIALIZE ENTERPRISE'S POSITION 
LET Q1»INT(RND(1)*8+1) 
LET Q2-INT(RND(1)*8+1) 
LET S1«INT(RND(1)*8+1) 
LET S2-INT(RND(1)*8+1) 
MAT C-ZER 
LET CC 3.13—1 
LET CC 2. 1 3—1 
LET CC 4.13—1 
LET CC 4.2 3—1 
LET CCS. 2 3— 1 
LET CC 6. 2 3—1 
LET CC 1. 2 3=1 
LET CC 2. 2 3-1 
LET CC 6. 1 3-1 
LET CC 7. 1 3—1 
LET CC 8. 1 3-1 
LET CC 8. 2 3-1 
LET CC9. 2 3-1 
DIM DC83 
FOR 1-1 TO 8 
LET DC I 3=0 
NEXT I 

LET A1*-"NSLPTSDCX" 

LET D*-"WARP ENG I NESS. R SENSORSl R SENSORSPHASER CNTR1 " 
LET D*-D*. "PHOTON TLIBESDAMAGE CNTRLSHIELD CNTRLCOMPUTFR" 
LET G4*»"III" 

LET Gl»=" ANT ARES. SIRIUS. RIGEL DENEB. PROCVON CAPELLA VEGA " 
LET G1*-G1*. "BETELGEUSE. CANOPUS ALDEBARAN ALTAIR. RE GUI US " 
LET G1*-G1*. "SAGITTARIUS. ARCTURUS. POLLUX SPICA « 
LET B9-0 
LET K9-0 

LET A1*="N5L.PTSDCX" 

REM SET UP WHAT EXISTS IN GALAXV . . . 
FOR 1-1 TO 8 
FOR J-l TO 8 
LET Rl-RND(l) 
IF Rl> 98 THEN GOTO 0900 
IF Rl>. 95 THEN GOTO 0930 
IF Rl>. 8 THEN GOTO 0960 
LET K3-8 
GOTO 0980 
LET K3-3 
LET K9-K9+3 
GOTO 0980 
LET K3-2 
LET K9-K9+2 
GOTO 0980 
LET K3-1 
LET K9-K9+1 
LET Rl-RND(l) 
IF Rl>. 96 THEN GOTO 1020 
LET B3-0 
GOTO 1040 
LET B3-1 
I..ET B9=B9+1 
LET S3=INT(RND(1)*8+1) 
LET GC I, J 3=K3*100+B3*10+S3 

REM K3-#KLING0NS B3-#STARBASES S3-#STARS 
LET ZC I. J 3=0 
NEXT J 
NEXT I 
LET K7=K9 
DIM X*C 2 3. X0*C 5 3 
LET X*-"" 
LET X0»-" IS " 
IF B9O0 THEN GOTO 1200 
LET B9-1 

IF GC 6. 3 3>=200 THEN GOTO 1190 
LET GC 6. 3 3-GC 6. 3 3+100 
LET K9-K9+1 
LET GC 6. 3 3-GC 6. 3 3+10 
IF B9-1 THEN GOTO 1238 
LET X*-"S" 
LET X0*=" ARE " 

PRINT "VOLtR ORDERS ARE AS FOLLOWS:" 

DESTROV THE"K9" KL INGON WARSHIPS WHICH HAVE INVADED" 
" THE GAI. AXV BEFORE THEV CAN ATTACK FEDERATION HEADQUARTERS' 
" ON ST ARDATE " T0+T9 " ; THIS GIVES VOU"T9" DAVS. THFRE " X0S 
" "B9" STARBASE»jXS" IN THE GALAXV FOR RESUPPLVING VOUR SHIP 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 



PRINT 

PRINT "HIT 'RETURN' WHEN READV TO ASSUME COMMAND ' 



K3' KLINGONS, 



1388 INPUT R* 

1310 REM *** HERE ANY TIME ENTER NEW QUADRANT . . . 
1328 LET Z4-Q1 
133S LET Z5-Q2 
1340 LET K3-8 
13S0 LET B3-0 
1360 LET S3«0 
13/0 LET GS-8 
1380 LET 04-. 5*RNDC1) 
1390 IF OKI THEN GOTO 1600 
1400 IF Ql>8 THEN GOTO 1600 
1410 IF Q2<1 THEN GOTO 1608 
1420 IF Q2>8 THEN GOTO 1600 
1430 GOSUB 9030 
1440 PRINT 

1458 IF TOT0 THEN GOTO 1490 

1460 PRINT "VOUR MISSION BEGINS WITH YOUR STARSHIP LOCATED" 
1470 PRINT "IN THE GRLRCTIC QUADRANT, "*G2*"'. " 
1480 GOTO 1580 

1490 PRINT "NOW ENTERING "G2*" QURDRRNT 
1500 PRINT 

1518 LET X-GC Ql, Q2 3*. 01 
1520 LET K3-INTCX) 
1530 LET B3-INTCCX-K3>*10> 

1540 LET S3-GCQ1, Q23-INTCGCQ1, Q23*. 1>*18 
1550 IF K3-0 THEN GOTO 1590 

1560 PRINT "COMBAT RREfl CONDITION RED" 

1570 IF S>200 THEN GOTO 1590 
1580 PRINT " SHIELDS DANGEROUSLY LOW" 
1598 MAT K-ZER 
1680 FOR I-l TO 3 
1618 LET KC I, 3 3-0 
1620 NEXT I 
1630 LET R*-Z* 
1648 LET R*=Z* 
1650 LET S*-Z*C 1* 48 3 

1668 REM POSITION ENTERPRISE IN QURDRRNT, THEN PLRCE 
1678 REM 'B3' STARBASES, RND 'S3' STRRS ELSEWHERE. 
1680 LET A*-"<*>" 
1690 LET Zl-Sl 
1700 LET Z2-S2 
1710 GOSUB 8678 
1720 FOR 1-1 TO K3 
1730 GOSUB 8598 
1748 LET R#«"+++» 
LET Zl-Rl 
LET Z2-R2 
GOSUB 8670 
LET KC I, 13-R1 
LET KT. I, 2 3-R2 
LET KC I, 3 3-S9 
1818 NEXT I 
1828 FOR I-l TO B3 
1838 GOSUB 8590 
1840 LET A*-">!< H 
1850 LET Zl-Rl 
1868 LET Z2-R2 
1870 GOSUB 8670 
LET B4-Z1 
LET B5-Z2 
19(W NEXT I 
1918 FOR 1-1 TO S3 
1920 GOSUB 8598 
19.30 LET A*»" * " 
1940 LET Zl-Rl 
1958 LET Z2-R2 
19fi0 GOSUB 8670 
1970 NEXT I 
1988 GOSUB 6430 

1998 IF S+EO10 THEN GOTO 2020 
2008 IF E>10 THEN GOTO 2060 
2010 IF DC7 3>-0 THEN GOTO 2060 

2020 PRINT "<7>** FRTRL ERROR **<7> VOU'VE JUST STRANDED VOUR SHIP IN SPACE!!" 

2030 PRINT "VOU HAVE INSUFFICIENT MANEUVERING ENERGY, AND SHIELD CONTROL" 

2040 PRINT "IS PRESENTLY INCAPRBLE OF CROSS-CIRCUITING TO ENGINE ROOM!" 

2B50 GOTO 6260 

2860 PRINT "COMMAND" J 

2870 INPUT A* 

2080 FOR 1-1 TO 9 

2890 IF ASCI, 130A1SC I, I 3 THEN GOTO 2160 

2100 IF I<>2 THEN GOTO 2140 < * 

2110 IF LENCASX2 THEN GOTO 2140 ft 
2120 IF A*C2, 2 3-"R" THEN GOTO 2140 
2130 LET 1-6 

2140 ON I THEN GOTO 2300, 1980, 4000, 4260, 4700, 
2150 IF A#«"XXX" THEN GOTO 6270 
2160 NEXT I 

2170 PRINT "ENTER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING:" 
NAV 



1750 
1760 
17/0 
1788 
1790 
1880 



1890 



5538, 5698, 7290 



CTO SET COURSE)" 
"SRS <FOR SHORT RANGE SENSOR SCAN)" 
"LRS (FOR LONG RANGE SENSOR SCAN)" 
"PHA <TO FIRE PHASERS)" 

CTO FIRE PHOTON TORPEDOES)" 
CTO RAISE OR LOWER SHIELDS) " 
"DAM <FOR DAMAGE CONTROL. REPORT)" 
"COM CTO CALL ON LIBRARY-COMPUTER)" 
"XXX CTO RESIGN VOUR COMMAND) " 



TOR 
SHE 



2180 PRINT 
2190 PRINT 
2280 PRINT 
2210 PRINT 
2220 PRINT 
2230 PRINT 
2248 PRINT 
2250 PRINT 
2268 PRINT 
22/8 PRINT 
2288 GOTO 1990 

2298 REM COURSE CONTROL BEGINS HERE 
2388 PRINT "COLIRSE Cl-9)"; 
2310 INPLIT CI 

2328 IF Cl>-1 THEN GOTO 2350 

2330 PRINT » LT. SULU RFPORTS, ' INCORRECT COURSE DATA, SIR!'" 

2340 GOTO 1990 

2350 IF Cl<9 THEN GOTO 2388 

2360 IF Cl>9 THEN GOTO 2338 

2378 LET Cl.-l 

2388 PRINT "WARP FACTOR C0-8) H > 
2398 INPUT Wl 

2480 IF WK-0 THEN GOTO 2420 
241*1 IF W108 THEN GOTO 2458 

2428 PRINT » CHIEF ENGINEER SCOTT REPORTS 'THE ENGINES WON'T" 
2438 PRINT " TAKE WARP "Wl" ! '" 

2448 GOTO 1990 

2458 IF DC13>-0 THEN GOTO 2490 
2468 IF WIO. 2 THEN GOTO 2498 

2470 PRINT "WARP ENGINES ARE DAMAGED. MAXIMUM SPEED - WARP 0. 2* 

2480 GOTO 2300 

2490 LET N-INTCW1*8+. 5) 

2580 IF E-N>-0 THEN GOTO 2590 

2510 PRINT "ENGINEERING REPORTS ' INSUFFICIENT ENERGY AVAILABLE" 
2528 PRINT " FOR MANELIVER I NG RT WRRP"W1"!'" 
2530 IF S<N-E THEN GOTO 1.990 
2548 IF DT/3<0 THEN GOTO 1990 

2558 PRINT "DEFLECTOR CONTROL. ROOM RCKNOWLEGES"S" UNITS" 
2568 PRINT " OF ENERGY PRESENTLV DEPL OVED TO SHIELDS. " 
25/8 GOTO 5530 

2530 REM KLINGONS MOVE/FIRE ON MOVING STRRSHIP . . . 
2590 FOR 1-1 TO K3 

2680 IF KC I, 3 3<-0 THEN GOTO 2700 
2618 LET 

I 



2620 LET Zl-KC I, 1 3 
2630 LET Z2-KC I, 2 3 
2640 GOSUB 3670 
2650 GOSUB 8590 
2660 LET KC I, 1 3-Z1 
2678 L ET KC 1,2 3— Z2 
2688 LET R*="+++" 
2690 GOSUB 8670 
2700 NEXT I 
2/10 GOSUB 6000 
2/20 LET Dl-0 
2738 LET D6-W1 
2/40 IF WKl THEN GOTO 2ZZ0 
2758 LET 06-1 

2/68 REM MAKE REPAIRS TO SHIP 
2ZZ8 HOR 1-1 TO 8 

2/88 IF DC I 3>«8 THEN GOTO 2880 
2790 LET DC I 3-DC I 3+D6 
2808 IF DC I 3<8 THEN GOTO 2880 
2818 IF Dl-1 THEN GOTO 2840 
2820 LET Dl-1 

2838 PRINT "DAMAGE CONTROL REPORT:" 
2848 PRINT TABC8); 
2850 LET Rl-I 
2868 GOSUB 8798 

2878 PRINT " REPAIR COMPLETED" 
2888 NEXT I 

2898 REM DAMAGE/ I MPROVEMENT DURING SOME VES 
2988 IF RNDC1». 2 THEN GOTO 3870 
2918 LET R1-INTCRNDC1)*8+1) 
2928 IF RNDC1)>- 6 THEN GOTO 3000 
2938 LET DCR13-DCR13-CRNDC1)*5+1> 
2948 PRINT 

2958 PRINT "DAMAGE CONTROL REPORT:"; 
2968 GOSUB 8790 
2970 PRINT " DAMAGED" 
2988 PRINT 
2990 GOTO 3070 

3080 LET DCR13-DCR1 3+CRNDCl.)*3+l) 
3010 PRINT 

3020 PRINT "DAMAGE CONTROL REPORT : "i 
3038 GOSUB 8798 

3048 PRINT " STATE OF REPAIR IMPROVED" 
3050 PRINT 

3068 RFM BEGIN MOVING STARSHIP ** 
3070 LET A««" 
:<8O0 LET Z1-INTCS1) 
3890 LET Z2—INTCS2) 
3100 GOSUB 86Z0 

311.0 LET X1-CCC1, 13+CCCC1+1, 1 3-CC CI, 1 3)*CC1-INTCC1) ) 
3120 LET X-Sl 
3130 LET V-S2 

3140 LET X2-CCC1, 2 3+CCCC1+1, 2 3-CC CI, 2 3)*CC1-INTCC1) ) 
3150 LET Q4-Q1 
3160 LET Q5-Q2 
3170 FOR 1-1 TO N 
3188 LET S1-S1+X1 
3190 LET S2-S2+X2 
3200 IF SKI THEN GOTO 3500 
3210 IF Sl>-9 THEN GOTO 3500 
3220 IF S2<1 THEN GOTO 3500 
3230 IF S2>-9 THEN GOTO 3500 
3248 LET S8- I NT C SI ) *24+ I NT C S2 ) *3-26 
3250 IF S8>72 THEN GOTO 3288 
3260 IF Q«S8, S8+2 3-" " THEN GOTO 3360 
32/0 GOTO 3320 

3280 IF S8>144 THEN GOTO 3310 

3290 IF R« S8-Z2, S8-Z8 3«" " THEN GOTO 3360 
3308 GOTO 3320 

3310 IF S*CS8-144, S8-142 3-" " THEN GOTO 3368 
3320 LET S1-S1-X1 
2330 LET S2-S2-X2 

3340 PRINT "WARP ENGINES SHUT DOWN AT SECTOR "SI", "S2" DUE TO BAD NAVIGATION. " 

3350 GOTO 3370 

3360 NEXT I 

33/8 LET R*»"0>" 

3388 LET Z1-INTCS1) 

3398 LET Z2-INTCS2) 

3488 GOSUB 36/0 

3410 GOSUB 3910 

3420 LET T8-1 

3430 IF Wl>-1 THEN GOTO 3450 
3448 LET T8-. 1*INTC18*W1) 
3458 LET T-T+T8 

3468 IF T>T0+T9 THEN GOTO 6220 

34/8 REM SEE IF DOCKED, THEN GET COMMAND 

3488 GOTO 1988 

3498 REM EXCEEDED QUADRANT LIMITS 

3588 LET X-8*Q1 +X+N*X1 

3518 LET V^8*Q2+V+N*X2 

3520 LET Ql-INTCX/8) 

3538 LET Q2-INTCV/8) 

3548 LET S1-INTCX-Q1*80 

3558 LET S2-INTCV-Q2*8) 

3568 IF S1O0 THEN GOTO 3590 

3570 LET Ql-Ql-1 

3530 LET Sl-8 

3598 IF S2O0 THEN GOTO 3620 
3600 LET Q2-Q2-1 
3610 LET S2-8 
3628 LET X5-8 

3638 IF Ql>-1 THEN GOTO 3678 
3648 LET X5-1 
3658 LET Gl-1 
3668 LET Sl-1 

36/8 IF Q1.<-8 THEN GOTO 3718 
3688 LET X5-1 
3698 LET Ql=8 
3788 LET Sl-8 

3718 IF Q2>-1 THEN GOTO 3758 
3728 LET X5-1 
3/38 LET Q2-1 
3/48 LET S2-1 

3/58 IF Q2<«8 THEN GOTO 3/98 
3/68 LET X5-1 
3Z/8 LET Q2-8 
3/88 LET S2-8 

3790 IF X5-0 THEN GOTO 3868 

3888 PRINT "LT. UHURA REPORTS MESSAGE FROM STARFLEET COMMRND : " 

381.8 PRINT " 'PERMISSION TO RTTEMPT CROSSING OF GRLRCTIC PERIMETER" 

3828 PRINT " IS HEREBY *DENIED*. SHUT DOWN VOLIR ENGINES. '" 

3830 PRINT "CHIEF ENGINEER SCOTT REPORTS 'WRRP ENGINES SHUT DOWN" 

3848 PRINT " RT SECTOR "SI", "S2" OF QURDRRNT "Ql", "Q2". '" 

3858 IF T>T8+T9 THEN GOTO 6228 

3868 IF 8*Q1+Q2=8*Q4+Q5 THEN GOTO 3378 

3878 LET T-T+l 

3888 GOSUB 3918 

3898 GOTO 1320 

3908 REM MRNELIVER ENERGY S/R *** 

3910 LET E-E-N-18 

3920 IF E>-8 THEN GOTO 3988 

3938 PRINT "SHIELD CONTROL SUPPLIED ENERGY TO COMPLETE THE MRNELIVER. " 



f 



3940 LET S=S+E 
3950 LET E=0 

3968 IF S>0 THEN GOTO 3980 
3970 LET S=0 
3980 RETURN 

3998 REM L ... R. SENSOR SCAN COOE 
4000 IF Dr 3 3>=0 THEN GOTO 4030 

4010 PRINT "LONG RRNGE SENSORS ARE I NOPERRBL E " 
4020 GOTO 1990 

4030 PRINT "LONG RANGE SENSOR SCAN FOR QUADRANT " Ql " , "Q2 

4040 LET 01*=" « 

4050 PRINT 01* 

4060 FOR I=Q1-1 TO Ql+1 

4870 DIM NC3 3 

4080 FOR 11=1 TO 3 

4090 L ET NT 113=0 

4100 NEXT II 

4110 FOR J=Q2-1 TO Q2+1 

4120 IF Kl THEN GOTO 4180 

4130 IF I>8 THEN GOTO 4180 

4140 IF J<1 THEN GOTO 4180 

4150 IF J>8 THEN GOTO 4180 

4160 LET NT J-Q2+2 3-GT I . J 3 

4170 LET Kl< J 3-GC L J] 

4180 NEXT J 

4190 DIM Pitt 20 3 

4200 LET Pl*=": *## : «## : ### >> 
4210 PRINT USING PI*, NC 1 3, Nf 2 3, NC 3 3 
4220 PRINT 01* 
4230 NEXT I 
4240 GOTO 1990 

4250 REM *** PHASER CONTROL CODE BFGINS HERE 
4260 IF K3>0 THEN GOTO 4300 

4270 PRINT "SCIENCE OFFICER SPOCK REPORTS ' SENSORS SHOW" 
4288 PRINT " NO ENFMV SHIPS IN THIS QUADRANT. '" 
4290 GOTO 1990 

4300 IF DC4 3>=8 THEN GOTO 4330 
4310 PRINT "PHASERS INOPERATIVE" 
4320 GOTO 1990 

4330 IF DCS3>=8 THEN GOTO 4350 

4340 PRINT "COMPUTER FAILURE HAMPERS ACCURACV" 

4350 PRINT "PHASERS LOCKED ON TARGET; » 

4360 PRINT "ENERGY AVAILABLE = "E 

4370 PRINT "NUMBER OF UNITS TO FIRE:"; 

4380 INPUT X 

4390 IF X<=0 THEN GOTO 1990 

4400 IF E-X<0 THEN GOTO 4360 
1410 LET E=E-X 
+420 GOSUB 6000 
\ 4430 IF DC7 3>=0 THEN GOTO 4450 

4440 LET X=X*RND(1> 

4450 LET H1=INT<X/K3> 

4460 FOR 1=1 TO 3 
■ 4470 IF KCI,3 3<=0 THEN GOTO 4670 
J 4480 LET H=INT((Hl/FND(0>>*(RND(l>+2>> 
! 4490 IF H>. 15*KC I, 3 3 THEN GOTO 4530 
| 4500 PRINT " SENSORS SHOW NO DAMAGE" 

4510 PRINT " TO ENEMV AT "KX. I, 1 3". "KL 1 , 2 3 

4520 GOTO 4670 
, 4530 LET KC I, 3 3=KC I, 3 3-H 

| 4540 PRINT H" UNIT HIT ON Kl INGON AT SECTOR "KC I, 1 3", "KC 1,2 3 

4550 IF KCI,3 3<=0 THEN GOTO 4580 
. 4560 PRINT " (SENSORS SHOW"KCI,3 3" UNITS REMAINING) " 
I 4570 GOTO 4670 

4580 PRINT " *** KL INGON DESTROYED 
t 4590 LET K3=K3-1 

4680 LET K9=K9-1 

4610 LET A*=" 

4620 LET Z1=KC I, 13 

4630 LET Z2-KC 1,2 3 

4640 GOSUB 8670 

4650 LET GC Ql, Q2 3=K3*100+B3*1 8+S3 
4660 IF K9<=0 THEN GOTO 6370 
4670 NEXT I 
4680 GOTO 1990 

4698 REM PHOTON TORPEDO CODE BEGINS *** 
4700 IF DC5 3>=0 THEN GOTO 4730 

4710 PRINT "PHOTON TLIBES ARE NOT OPERATIONAL " 

4720 GOTO 1990 

4730 IF P>0 THEN GOTO 4760 

4740 PRINT "ALL PHOTON TORPEDOES EXPENDED" 
4750 GOTO 1990 

4760 PRINT "TORPEDO COURSE <l-9>"; 
4770 INPUT CI 

4780 IF C1>=1 THEN GOTO 4810 

4790 PRINT " ENSIGN CHEKOV REPORTS, 'INCORRECT COURSE DATA, SIR!'" 

4800 GOTO 1990 

48.1.0 IF Cl>9 THEN GOTO 4790 

4820 IF CK9 THEN GOTO 4850 

4830 IF Cl>=9 THEN GOTO 4760 

4840 LET Cl»l 

4850 LET X1-CCC1, 13+<C£C1+1, 1 3-CC CI, 1 3>*(C1-INT(C1 > > 
4860 LET X2=CCC1, 2 3+(CCCl+l, 2 3-CC CI, 2 3>*(C1-INT(C1> > 
4870 LET E-E-2 
4880 LET X=S1 
4890 LET V=S2 
4900 LET P=P-1 
4910 PRINT "TORPEDO TRACK:" 
4920 LET X-X+Xl 
4930 LET V=V+X2 
4<>40 LET X3=INT(X+. 5> 
4950 LET V3=INT(V+. 5> 
4960 IF X3<1 THEN GOTO 5490 
4978 IF X3>=9 THEN GOTO 5490 
4980 IF V3<1 THEN GOTO 5490 
4990 IF V3>=9 THEN GOTO 5490 
5080 PRINT " »X3", "V3 

501.0 LET A*=" " 
5020 LET 21«X 
5030 LET 22-V 
5040 GOSUB 8830 
5850 IF Z3O0 THEN GOTO 4920 
5060 LET A*="+++" 
5070 LET 21=X 
5080 LET Z2=V 
5090 GOSUB 8830 
5100 IF 23=0 THEN GOTO 5218 
5110 PRINT "*** KL INGON DESTROYED 
5120 LET K3-K3-1 
5130 LET K9=K9-1 
5140 IF K9<=0 THEN GOTO 6370 
5150 FOR 1=1 TO 3 

51.60 IF X30KCI,13 THEN GOTO 5180 
5170 IF V3=KCI,2 3 THEN GOTO 5190 
5188 NEXT I 
5198 LET KL" I, 3 3=0 
5200 GOTO 5430 
5210 LET A*=" * " 
5220 LET Z1=X 
5238 LET Z2=V 
5240 GOSUB 8830 

5250 IF 73=0 THEN GOTO 5280 , 



5260 PRINT "STAR AT"X3; ", "V3; " ABSORBED TORPEDO ENERGY. » 
5270 GOTO 5588 
5280 LET A*=">!<" 
5298 LET Z1=X 
5388 LET 22=V 
531.0 GOSUB 8830 
5320 IF 73=0 THEN GOTO 4760 
5330 PRINT "*+* STARBASE DESTROYED ***" 
5.340 LET B3=B3-1 
5.350 LET B9=B9-1 
5360 IF B9>0 THEN GOTO 5400 

5370 PRINT "THAT DOES IT, CAPTAIN ! ! YOU ARE HEREBY RELIEVED OF COMMAND" 
5380 PRINT " AND SENTENCED TO 39 STARDATES AT HARD LABOR ON CVGNUS 12!!" 
5390 GOTO 6270 

5480 PRINT "STARFLEET COMMAND REVIEWING YOUR RECORD TO CONSIDER" 
5410 PRINT " COURT MARTIAL!" 
5428 LET D0=0 
5430 LET A*=" 
5448 LET Z1=X 
5458 LET 22=V 
5468 GOSUB 8670 

5470 LET GC Ql, Q2 3=K3*100+B3*1.0+S3 
5488 GOTO 5500 
5490 PRINT "TORPEDO MISSED" 
5500 GOSLIB 6000 
5510 GOTO 1990 

5520 REM +** SHIELD CONTROL STARTS HERE 
5530 IF DC7 3>=0 THEN GOTO 5568 
5540 PRINT "SHIELD CONTROL INOPERABLE" 
5550 GOTO 1990- 

5560 PRINT "ENERGY AVAILABLE =»E+S". NUMBER OF UNITS TO SHIELDS:"; 
5570 INPUT X 

5580 IF X>=0 THEN GOTO 5620 
5590 IF SOX THEN GOTO 5628 
5600 PRINT "(SHIELDS UNCHANGED)" 
5610 GOTO 1998 

5620 IF E+S-X<8 THEN GOTO 5560 
5630 LET E-E+S-X 
5610 LET S=X 

5658 PRINT "DEFLECTOR CONTROL ROOM REPORT:" 
5660 PRINT " 'SHIELDS NOW AT "S" PER YOUR COMMAND'" 
5678 GOTO 1990 

5680 REM *** DAMAGE CONTROL STARTS HERE 
5690 IF Dr&3>=0 THEN GOTO 5910 

5708 PRINT "DAMAGE CONTROL REPORT NOT AVAILABLE" ' 
5710 IF D0=0 THEN GOTO 1990 
5720 LET D3=0 
5730 FOR 1=1 TO 8 

5740 IF DC I 3>=0 THEN GOTO 5760 
5750 LET D3=D3+. 1 
5760 NEXT I 

5770 IF D3=0 THEN GOTO 1998 
5788 LET D3=D3+D4 
5798 IF D3<1 THEN GOTO 581.8 
5888 LET D3=. 9 

5818 PRINT "TECHNICIANS STANDING BY TO EFFECT REPAIRS TO YOUR SHIP; " 
5828 PRINT "ESTIMATED TIME TO REPAIR: "; 
5830 PRINT USING ". « STARDATES", D3 

5840 PRINT "WILL YOU AUTHORIZE THE REPAIR ORDER (VES7N0V; 
5850 INPUT A* 

5868 IF A*0"VES" THEN GOTO 1990 
5870 f-OR 1=1 TO 8 
5888 LET DC I 3=0 
5890 NEXT I 
5980 LET T=T+D3+. 1 
5910 PRINT 
5920 PRINT "DEVICE 
5930 FOR Rl=l TO 8 
5940 GOSUB 8790 
5950 PRINT USING 
5968 NEXT Rl 
5970 PRINT 
5980 GOTO 5710 

5998 REM "KLINGONS SHOOTING" 
6888 IF K3<=0 THEN GOTO 6210 
6010 IF D0=8 THEN GOTO 6040 

6020 PRINT "STAR BASE SHIELDS PROTECT THE ENTERPRISE" 
6038 GOTO 6218 
6010 FOR 1=1 TO 3 

6858 IF KCI,3 3<=0 THEN GOTO 6200 

6060 LET H=INT< (KC I, 3 3/FND(8> >*(2+RND(l> ) > 

6070 LET S=S-H 

6880 PRINT H" UNIT HIT ON ENTERPRISE FROM SECTOR"KC I, 1 3", "KC 1,2 3 
6090 IF S<0 THEN GOTO 6240 

6100 PRINT " (SHIELDS DOWN TO"S" UNITS. >» 

6110 IF H<20 THEN GOTO 6200 

6120 IF RND(1>>. 6 THEN GOTO 6200 

6130 IF H/SO 02 THEN GOTO 6200 

6140 LET D2-H/S+. 5*RND(1> 

6150 LET R1»INT(RND(1>*8+1> 

6168 LET DC Rl 3=DC Rl 3-D2 

61.70 PRINT "DAMAGE CONTROL REPORTS *"; 
6180 GOSUB 8798 

6190 PRINT "DAMAGED BY THE HIT!'" 
6200 NEXT I 
6218 RETURN 

6220 PRINT "IT IS STARDATE "T 
6230 GOTO 6270 
6240 PRINT 

6258 PRINT "THE ENTERPRISE HAS BEEN DESTROYED THE FEDERATION WILL BE CONQUERED. 
6260 PRINT "IT IS STARDATF "T". " 

6270 PRINT "THERE WERE "K9" KL INGON BATTLE CRUISERS LEFT AT" 
6288 PRINT " THE END OF YOUR MISSION. " 
6290 PRINT 
6388 PRINT 

631.0 PRINT "THE FEDERATION IS IN NEED OF A NEW STARSHIP COMMANDER" 
6320 PRINT "FOR A SIMILAR MISSION — IF THERE IS A VOLUNTEER, " 
6330 PRINT "LET HIM STEP FORWARD AND ENTER 'AVE'. " 
6340 INPUT A* 

6350 IF A*="AVE" THEN GOTO 8240 
6360 GOTO 9250 

6370 PRINT "CONGRATULATIONS, CAPTAIN! THE LAST KLINGON BATTLE CRUISER" 
6380 PRINT " MENACING THE FEDERATION HAS BEEN DESTROYED. " 
6390 PRINT 

6400 PRINT "VOLtR EFFICIENCY RATING IS " ( (K77(T-T0) >*1000> ". » 
6410 GOTO 6290 

6420 REM S. R. SENSOR SCAN & STARTLIP SLIBR *** 
6430 FOR I-Sl-1 TO Sl+1 



STATE OF REPAIR" 



-## ##", DCR1 3 



CODE BEGINS *** 



6440 


FOR J-S2-1 TO S2+1 






6450 


IF INT(I+. 5X1 THEN 


GOTO 


6540 


6460 


IF INT<I+. 5)>8 THEN 


GOTO 


6540 


6470 


IF INT(J+. 5X1 THEN 


GOTO 


6540 


6488 


IF INT(J+. 5»8 THEN 


GOTO 


6540 


6498 


LET A*=">!<" 






6588 


LET Z1=I 






6510 


LET Z2=J 






6520 


GOSUB 8830 






6530 


IF 23=1 THEN GOTO 6580 




6540 


NEXT J 






6550 


NEXT I 






6560 


LET D0=0 






65/0 


GOTO 6650 







61*30 LET D0-1 
6590 LET C*-"DOCKED" 
6660 LET E-3000 
6610 LET P-10 

6620 PRINT "SHIELDS DROPPED FOR DOCKING PURPOSES' 
6630 LET S-0 
6640 GOTO 6720 
6650 IF K3>0 THEN GOTO 6690 
6660 IF E<E0*. 1 THEN GOTO 6710 
6670 LET C*-" GREEN" 
6680 GOTO 6720 
6690 LET C*-" <Z>*RED*<Z>" 
6700 GOTO 6720 
6710 LET C*»"YELLOW" 
6/20 IF DC2 3>»0 THEN GOTO 6770 
6730 PRINT 

6740 PRINT "*** SHORT RANGE SENSORS RRE OUT ***" 
6Z50 PRINT 
6760 GOTO 7270 

6770 LET 01*=" •• 

6780 PRINT 01* 
6790 DIM N5*f4 3 
6800 LET N5*- "####" 
6810 PRINT " "I 
6820 FOR 1=1 TO 22 STEP 3 
6830 PRINT Q*£I, 1+2 3" "> 
6840 NEXT I 
6850 PRINT 
6860 PRINT " -J 
68/0 FOR 1-25 TO 46 STEP 3 
6880 PRINT Q*CI,I+2 3" "> 
6898 NEXT I 

6900 PRINT " STARDATE »j 

6910 PRINT USING "####.#", T 
6920 PRINT " "; 
6930 FOR 1-49 TO 70 STEP 3 
6940 PRINT QtC I, 1+23" "j 
6950 NEXT I 

6960 PRINT " CONDITION »; 

6970 PRINT C* 
6980 PRINT " »j 
6990 FOR 1-1 TO 22 STEP 3 
7000 PRINT R*CI, 1+2 3" "i 
7010 NEXT I 

7020 PRINT " QUADRANT 
7830 PRINT " "; 
7040 FOR 1=25 TO 46 STEP 3 
7050 PRINT R*CI,I+23" "j 
7060 NEXT I 

70/0 PRINT " SECTOR 
7080 PRINT " "; 
7090 FOR 1-49 TO 70 STEP 3 
Z100 PRINT R*CI,I+23" a ) 
7110 NEXT I 

7120 PRINT " TOTAL ENERGV *i 

PRINT USING N5«, E+S 
7140 PRINT " "; 
7150 FOR 1-1 TO 22 STEP 3 
7168 PRINT S*CI,I+23" "j 
71/0 NEXT I 

Z180 PRINT " PHOTON TORPEDOES "> 

7190 PRINT USING N5*, P 
7200 PRINT " »; 
7210 FOR 1-25 TO 46 STEP 3 
7220 PRINT S*CI, 1+23" »J 
7230 NEXT I 

7248 PRINT " SHIELDS "j 

7250 PRINT USING N5», S 
7260 PRINT Ol* 

7279 RETURN 

7280 REM *** LIBRARY COMPUTER CODE BEGINS HERE 
7290 IF DC8 3>-8 THEN GOTO Z320 
7300 PRINT "COMPUTER DISABLED" 
7310 GOTO 1990 

7328 PRINT " COMPUTER ACTIVE AND AWAITING COMMAND"; 
7330 INPUT A 

7340 IF A<0 THEN GOTO 1990 
Z350 PRINT 
Z360 LET H8»l 

Z3Z0 IF A-0 THEN GOTO Z540 
Z388 ON A THEN GOTO Z900, 80Z0, 
Z390 GOTO Z450 
Z400 REM *** SETUP TO CHANGE C. G RECORD TO GALAXY MAP 
Z410 LET H8-8 
Z420 LET G5-1 

Z430 PRINT » THE GALAXY" 

Z440 GOTO Z550 

Z450 PRINT "FUNCTIONS AVAILABLE FROM LIBRARY-COMPUTER: 



"Ql' 



'Q2 



'SI", "S2 



3500, 6150, 7480 



0 - CUMULATIVE GALACTIC RECORD" 

1 - STATUS REPORT" 

2 = PHOTON TORPEDO DATA" 

3 - STARBASE NAV DATA" 

4 « DIRECTION/DISTANCE CALCULATOR" 

5 - GALAXY 'REGION NAME' MAP" 



Z460 PRINT 
Z4Z8 PRINT 
Z480 PRINT 
Z490 PRINT 
Z500 PRINT 
Z518 PRINT 
Z520 GOTO Z320 
Z530 REM *** CUM GALACTIC RECORD CODE BEGINS *** 
Z540 PRINT "COMPUTER RECORD OF GALAXY FOR QUADRANT 
Z558 PRINT "12 3 4 5 6 

Z568 LET 03*=" 

Z5Z6 PRINT 03* 

Z588 D I M N1*C 2 3, N2*r 8 3, N*C 5 3 

Z590 FOR 1=1 TO 8 

Z600 LET Nl*-"#" 

Z618 PRINT USING Nl*, I; 

Z620 IF H8=0 THEN GOTO 7740 

7630 FOR J-l TO 8 

Z640 LET N?*=" ###" 

Z650 LET N*-"" 

Z660 IF IOQ1 THEN GOTO ZZ00 

Z6Z0 IK JOQ2 THEN GOTO ZZ00 

Z680 LET N*-"<Z>" 

Z690 PRINT N*j 

ZZ00 PRINT USING N2*, ZCI,J3; 

ZZ10 PRINT N*i 

ZZ20 NEXT J 

ZZ30 GOTO Z850 

ZZ48 LET Z4-I 

Z750 LET Z5=l 

Z/60 GOSUB 9030 

ZZ/0 LET J0-INTC15-. 5*LEN<G2*>) 
ZZ80 PRINT TAB<J0>; 
Z/90 PRJNT G2«; 
/8«0 LET Z5-5 
Z818 GOSUB 9030 

Z820 LET J0-INTC39-. 5*LEN<G2*>> 

Z830 PRINT TAB<J0>; 

Z840 PRINT G2*j 

7850 PRINT 

7860 PRINT 03* 

78/0 NEXT I 

/880 GOTO 1990 

Z890 REM *** STATUS REPORT CODE BEGINS HERE *** 



"Ql 
7 



" • "Q2" ■ ' 
8" 



7908 PRINT " STATUS REPORT:" 
7918 LET X*-"" 
7928 IF K9=l THEN GOTO 7940 
7930 LET X*»"S" 

79-10 PRINT K9" KLINGON"X*" LEFT" 
7950 LET V5-<T0+T9>-T 

7960 PRINT USING "MISSION MUST BE COMPLETED IN •». « STARDATES", V5 

79/8 LET X*-"» 

/980 IF B9-1 THEN GOTO 8040 

7998 LET X*="S" 

8808 IF B9O0 THEN GOTO 8040 * 
8018 PRINT "YOUR STUPIDITY HAS LEFT YOU ON YOUR OWN IN" 
3820 PRINT " THE GALAXY ~ YOU HAVE NO STARBASES LEFT ! " 
8038 GOTO 5690 

8840 PRINT "THE FEDERATION IS MAINTAINING" 89" S T ARBASE " X* " IN THF GAI AXV" 
3050 GOTO 5690 

8860 REM CODE FOR TORPEDO DATA, BASE NAV, D/D CALCULATOR *** 
8070 LET H8=0 
8080 FOR 1=1 TO 3 



8098 
8100 
8110 
8120 
8130 
8140 
81100 
8160 
8170 
8188 
8190 
8200 
8218 
8220 
8230 
8240 
8258 
8260 
8270 
8280 
8290 



> SECTOR <"S1* 



IF KEI,3 3<»8 THEN GOTO 8480 
LET Wl-KCI, 13 
LET X-Kfl,2 3 
LET Cl-Sl 
LET A-S2 
GOTO 8220 

PRINT "DIRECTION/^ I STANCE CALCL'LATOR : 
PRINT "YOU ARE AT QUADRANT <"Q1", "Q2' 
PRINT " PLEASE ENTER 
PRINT " INITIAL COORDINATES <X, V>"; 
INPUT CI, A 

PRINT " FINAL COORDINATES <X, Y>"; 

INPUT W1,X 

LET X-X-A 

LET A-C1-W1 

IF X<8 THEN GOTO 8350 

IF A<0 THEN GOTO 8410 

IF X>0 THEN GOTO 8280 

IF A-0 THEN GOTO 8370 

LET Cl-1 

IF ABS<AX=ABS<X> THEN GOTO 8330 
LET V5=C1 + <<<ABS<A)-ABS<X>>+ABS<:a>)/'ABS<A>> 
PRINT "DIRECTION »"V5 
GOTO 8468 

PRINT "DIRECTION »"C1+CABS<A>/ABS<X) > 
GOTO 8460 

IF A>0 THEN GOTO 8398 
IF X-0 THEN GOTO 8418 
LET Cl-5 
GOTO 8290 
LET Cl-3 
GOTO 8420 
LET Cl-7 

IF ABS<A>>=ABS<X) THEN GOTO 8458 

PRINT "DIRECTION -"Cl+< < <ABS<X>-ABSCA> >+ABS<X> >/ABS<X> > 
GOTO 8460 

PRINT "DIRECTION ="C1+<ABSCX>/ABS<A> > 
PRINT "DISTANCE — " SQR < X~2+A~2 ) 
IF H8-1 THEN GOTO 3 990 



*S2">" 



'SENSORS SHOW NO STARBASES IN THIS QUADRANT. "• 
STARBASE : " 



8318 
8320 
8338 
8340 
8358 
8360 
83/8 
8388 
8398 
8400 
8418 
8420 
8438 
8448 
8458 
8460 
84/8 

8488 NEXT I 
8498 GOTO 1990 

8500 IF B3O0 THEN GOTO 8530 
8510 PRINT "MR. SPOCK REPORTS, 
8520 GOTO 1990 

8538 PRINT "FROM ENTERPRISE TO 
8540 LET W1=B4 
8558 LET X-B5 
8568 GOTO 8120 

85/0 REM *+* END OF LIBRARY-COMPUTER CODE 

8588 REM S/R FINDS RANDOM HOLE IN QUADRANT 

8598 LET Rl-INTCRNDO >*8+l> 

8600 LET R2=INT<RND<1>*6+1> 

8610 LET A*-" 

8628 LET Zl-Rl 

8638 LET Z2-R2 

8648 GOSUB 8830 

8658 IF Z3-8 THEN GOTO 8598 

8668 RETURN 

86/8 REM *** INSERTION IN STRING ARRAY FOR QUADRANT *** 
8688 LET S8=INT<Z1+. 5>*24+INT<Z2+. 5>*3-26 
8690 IF S8>Z2 THEN GOTO 8/28 
8/00 LET Q*C S3, S8+2 3=A* 
8/10 GOTO 8/88 

8/20 IF S8>144 THEN GOTO 8/60 

3/30 LET S8-S8-/2 

8/40 LET R*C S8, S8+2 3=A* 

8/50 GOTO 3/88 

8/68 LET S8-S8-144 

8Z/0 LET S*C S8, S8+2 3«A* 

8/80 RETLIRN 

8Z90 REM *** PRINTS DEVICE NAME FROM ARRAY *** 
88K0 LET S8«R1*12-11 
8818 PRINT D*r S8, S8+11 3, 
8828 RETURN 

8830 REM *** STRING COMPARISON IN QUADRANT ARRAY *+* 
8840 LET Z1-INTC21+. 5> 
8350 LET Z2-INTCZ2+. 5> 
8860 LET S8-Zl*24+Z2*3-26 
88Z8 LET Z3=0 

8883 IF S8>Z2 THEN GOTO 8920 

8890 IF Q*f S8, S8+2 3<>A* THEN GOTO 9008 

8980 LET Z3-1 

8918 GOTO 9800 

8920 IF S8M44 THEN GOTO 89Z8 
8930 LET S8-S8-/2 

8940 IF R*C S8, S8+2 X>A* THEN GOTO 9800 
8950 LET Z3-1 
8968 GOTO 9000 
89/8 LET S8-S8-144 

85*80 IF S*C S3, S8+2 3<>A* THEN GOTO 9880 
8990 LET Z3-1 
9000 RETURN 

9010 REM ** S/R PRODUCES QUADRANT NAME IN G2* FROM Z4, 25C=Q1, 02 > 
9028 REM ** CCALL WITH G5-1 TO GET REGION NAME ONLV> 
9038 LET L2=2 

9048 IF Z5>=5 THEN GOTO 9060 

9050 LET L.2-1 

9060 LET L 3=2*<Z4-1>+L2 

90Z8 LET 13=1 

9080 LET 10=1 

9090 FOR L.-l TO LENCGl*) 

91.00 IF Gl*f L, L 3<>". " THEN GOTO 9140 
9110 IF I3-L3 THEN GOTO 9150 
9120 LET I0-L+1 
9138 LET I 3- I 3+1 
9140 NEXT L 

9158 LET G2*-G1*C 10, L-13 
9160 IF G5-1 THEN GOTO 9240 
91/0 LET 1.3=25 

9180 IF Z504 THEN GOTO 9280 
9190 LET L.3-Z5-4 
9200 LET 83*-" IV" 
9218 IF L3=4 THEN; GOTO 9230 



9228 LET G3*-G4*C1, L3 3 
9230 LET G2**G2*, " ", G3* 
9248 RETURN 
9250 STOP 
9260 END 



« 



* RUN 



* * * STAR TREK * * * 



DO VOU NEED INSTRUCTIONS (YES/NO) ? NO 

YOUR ORDERS ARE AS FOLLOWS: 

DESTROY THE 16 KLINGON WARSHIPS WHICH HAVE INVADED 
THE GALAXY BEFORE THEY CAN ATTACK FEDERATION HEADQUARTERS 
ON STARDATE 2830; THIS GIVES YOU 30 DAYS. THERE ARE 
3 STARBASES IN THE GALAXY FOR RESUPPLYING YOUR SHIP. 

HIT 'RETURN' WHEN READY TO ASSUME COMMAND 

? 

YOUR MISSION BEGINS WITH YOUR STARSHIP LOCATED 
IN THE GALACTIC QUADRANT* "BETELGEUSE II'. 



<*> 
* 



* 

* 



STARDATE 2800.0 

CONDITION GREEN 

QUADRANT 4, 6 

SECTOR 3* 6 

TOTAL ENERGY 3000 
PHOTON TORPEDOES 10 

SHIELDS 0 



COMMAND 7 LRS 

LONG RANGE SENSOR SCAN FOR QUADRANT 4* 6 



t 


7 : 


1 t 


8 : 


1 


7 » 


6 i 


7 i 


: 


6 t 


8 t 


8 : 



COMMAND 7 NAV 
COURSE (1-9) 7 7.7 
WARP FACTOR (0-8) 7 3 



NOW ENTERING ARCTURUS IV QUADRANT ... 

* * * 

<*> * 

* 



COMMAND ? LRS 

LONG RANGE SENSOR SCAN FOR QUADRANT 1, 8 



STARDATE 
CONDITION 
QUADRANT 
SECTOR 

TOTAL ENERGY 



2801.0 
GREEN 
7, 8 
3, 6 
2966 



PHOTON TORPEDOES 10 
SHIELDS 0 



t 4i 2 x 
x 3 I • 8 x 
x 4 I 106 : 



0 : 
0 t 
0 : 



COMMAND 7 SHE 

ENERGY AVAILABLE » 2966. NUMBER OF UNITS TO SHIELDS: ? 1000 
DEFLECTOR CONTROL ROOM REPORT: 

' SHIELDS NOW AT 1000 PER YOUR COMMAND' 
COMMAND ? NAV 
COURSE (1-9) 7 7 
WARP FACTOR (0-8) ? 1.2 

NOW ENTERING SPICA IV QUADRANT ... 

COMBAT AREA CONDITION RED 



* 



<*> 



* 
* 



STARDATE 2802.0 

CONDITION *RED* 

QUADRANT 8* 8 

SECTOR 5# 6 

TOTAL ENERGY 2946 
PHOTON TORPEDOES 10 

SHIELDS 1000 



COMMAND ? COM 

COMPUTER ACTIVE AND AWAITING COMMAND: ? 2 

DIRECTION ■ 3.75 
DI STANCE = 5 
COMMAND ? TOR 

TORPEDO COURSE (1-9) 7 3.75 
TORPEDO TRACK: 

4, 5 
3, 5 
Z. 4 
Is 3 

*** KLINGON DESTROYED *** 
COMMAND ? LRS 

LONG RANGE SENSOR SCAN FOR QUADRANT 8* 8 



i 


3 


: 


8 


: 


0 : 


: 


4 


: 


6 


■ 


0 : 


: 


0 


: 


0 


: 


0 : 



COMMAND ? COM 

COMPUTER ACTIVE AND AWAITING COMMAND: ? 0 

COMPUTER RECORD OF GALAXY FOR QUADRANT 8* 8: 
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 



0 

0 



0 

a 

0 



0 

0 
0 
0 



0 
0 
0 
0 



0 
0 
0 
3 
0 
0 



0 



0 



7 
7 
6 
0 
0 

0 



0 
0 
1 

6 
8 
0 
0 
0 



0 
0 
8 
7 
8 
4 
3 
4 



0 
0 
0 



0 

2 
8 
6 



COMMAND 7 NAV 
COURSE (1-9) 7 5 
WAR? FACTOR (3-8) 7 3 



COMMAND 7 NAV 
COURSE (1-9) ? 5 
WARP FACTOR (0-8) 7 .4 
105 UNIT HIT ON ENTERPRISE FROM SECTOR U 1 
(SHIELDS DOWN TO 1258 UNITS.) 
SHIELD CONTROL SUPPLIED ENERGY TO COMPLETE THE MANEUVER. 



♦ + + 



<*> 



* 



STARDATE 
CONDITION 
QUADRANT 
SECTOR 

TOTAL ENERGY 



2317.2 
• RED* 
2, 3 
3* 3 
1255 



PHOTON TORPEDOES 5 
SHIELDS 1255 



COMMAND 7 TOR 

TORPEDO COURSE (1-9) ? 4 

TORPEDO TRACK: 

Z, 2 
I j 1 

*** KLINGON DESTROYED *** 
COMMAND 7 LRS 

LONG RANGE SENSOR SCAN FOR QUADRANT Z, 3 



: 12 : 


8 : 


5 : 




1 104 : 


3 : 


4 : 




: 7 : 


5 : 


6 : 




COMMAND ? 
COURSE ( 1 


NAV 
-9) ? 


4 





WARP FACTOR (0-8) ? 1 

ENGINEERING REPORTS 'INSUFFICIENT ENERGY AVAILABLE 

FOR MANEUVERING AT WARP 1 ! ' 
DEFLECTOR CONTROL ROOM ACKNOWLEGES 1255 UNITS 

OF ENERGY PRESENTLY DEPLOYED TO SHIELDS. 
ENERGY AVAILABLE = 1253. NUMBER OF UNITS TO SHIELDS: 7 U00 
DEFLECTOR CONTROL ROOM REPORT: 

•SHIELDS NOW AT 1100 PER YOUR COMMAND' 
COMMAND ? NAV 
COURSE (1-9) 7 4 
WARP FACTOR (0-8) ? 1 

NOW ENTERING ANTARES II QUADRANT ... 

Space permits us to print only a small portion of the whole run; 
however, notes for the mission log are reproduced below. 

* * * 

CAPTAIN'S NOTES - FOR MISSION LOG: 



Star date 
2804.0 



Remarks 

Bad news. 4 Stardates out, we've only got one 
Klingon to our credit so far, and our Warp 
Engines just went bad. Fortunately there's a 
Starbase nearby. 



2805.2 -Sensor failure en route to Starbase - computer 
will have to help out on docking. 



2806.2 
2809.2 



-Repaired and ready to go. 

-Bad move! Tried to power up to Warp 5 without 
checking sensor readout — saved by auto-shut- 
down, but e/igines conked out again! Back to 
Altair III for repairs . . . 

2815.5 -More bad luck - computer failure while moving 
into battle area, so I eyeballed the first torpedo 
shot. Missed! They fired back and further 
damaged the computer. 

Second shot put one of the three out, but as I 
maneuvered, they hit the computer again! 

One Klingon came up to meet me — finished him 
off with a photon torpedo. 

Phasers held up long enough to get the third one. 

2815.8 -Condition yellow: too much energy deployed to 
shields. Will leave it this way until after the 
battle I expect in Rigel III. 

2817.2 -While moving in for a better shot (since my 
computer can't help me aim), shield control had 
to help out on maneuvering energy. Fortunately, 
the enemy fought back without tactical move- 
ment. 



46 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Mr. Spock's 7th Sense 



byT.fi. Kibler 
Georgia State University 

The Starship Enterprise had as its five year mission to 
explore strange new worlds, to seek out new civilizations. 
Besides Captain Kirk and Mr. Spock and its crew, the 
Enterprise carried an impressive array of scientific 
apparatus with which to carry out its exploration. Not the 
least of these was the Transporter which could, by 
separating the atoms of matter in one location and 
reassembling them in another, transport people or objects 
from place to place. It was most often used to transport 
survey parties to the surface of a planet for exploration. 
However, before a team would beam down to a planet, Mr. 
Spock, as chief science officer, would use the Enterprise's 
sensors to scan the planet's surface to give a detailed 
analysis of the planet. From the Enterprise's orbit the 
sensors could measure the atmosphere and surface nature of 
a planet, including the general mineral makeup. The sensors 
could even detect the presence or absence of life forms - 
including the relative level of its civilization. 

While the Transporter has to await the future and 
further research, the sensor is available to us today. Today 
sensors might not have the speed or the range of those 
found on the Enterprise, but they are real and most useful. 

The principle of the sensor is quite simple - identify 
objects by the characteristic radiation they give off. 
However, once one gets to the details, things get a bit 
messy. 

Everything on the surface of a planet or just beneath 
its surface or in its atmosphere (if there is one) transmits, 
reflects or emits radiation. Furthermore, the transmission, 
reflection and emission of radiation of a given object or 
substance forms an identifiable pattern. Just as a sample 
placed in a spectrophotometer has a spectral fingerprint 
which identifies it by the spectral absorption of its 
elements, so an area of the surface of a planet has a 
radiation pattern that identifies it and its components. 

There are, however, some problems in scanning that 
don't occur in a spectrophotometer. In a spectrophoto- 
meter you have a well defined and controlled environment 
while in scanning from orbit the atmosphere filters the 
outside radiation and scatters the reflected and emitted 



radiation. Also in a spectrophotometer the angle at which 
light hits the sample is controlled, while in scanning the 
strength and characteristics of the outside radiation may 
vary as the zenith angle changes. Further in scanning, the 
surface composition, surface structures, and surface entities 
appear different as they are stacked one upon another. 
However, many of these interferences can be accounted for 
by analysis. That is, first the atmosphere can be analyzed as 
to its composition and then its effects accounted for and 
factored out of surface observations. Similar procedures can 
be done to separate particular surface objects from their 
immediate environment. 

Again, in principle the hardware for the sensor is 
basically simple but the actual design becomes complex. 
The sensor would simply collect the radiation from some 
desired region of the planet and sample several wavelengths 
known to have discrimination qualities for surface features 
of interest. The patterns of readings would then be 
corrected for atmospheric and light source variations and 
then matched against standards to determine the things 
being observed. 

In practice there are many technical problems to be 
considered and many tradeoffs to be weighted. For 
example, two problems are: what is the proper scan area 
that is to be observed at a single instance and what is the 
minimum discrimination to be made in that area. The larger 
the area scanned and smaller the discrimination within that 
area the greater the data rate from the sensor for a given 
scan speed. The question of area size and discrimination 
size is bracketed on one side by efficiency and research 
restraints and on the other by physical limits. The larger the 
scan area the faster an area of the planet can be scanned. If 
hourly ocean current changes are needed then the scan area 
must be large enough to scan the ocean area of interest in 
one hour. However, if the smallest element of discrimina- 
tion is too small, the mass of data will overrun any system's 
ability to transmit or store that data - let alone analyze it. 
Thus for ocean analysis one would need large scan areas and 
large areas of discrimination. If bird counts in a sanctuary 
were desired, the smallest picture element must be quite 
small, but the scan area must also be small in order to keep 
within the limits of the data collection system. 

Further as the size of a picture element becomes 




... *.*i* vw 



v. 



mm 




V , is* y 



MAY-JUNE 1075 



47 



smaller, the requirements of the optical system become 
more exact. Such problems as general system noise and, in 
particular, optical distortion become acute. There seems to 
be a lower limit of about 5-10 centimeters set by 
atmospheric scattering. 

Since there is a loss of detail as the size of the picture 
element is increased, the obvious answer is to have two 
sensors systems, one with a large field of vision and large 
picture elements for large areas survey and locating areas of 
interest and a second sensor system for small discrimination 
within smaller areas. 

To try to put all of this in perspective — without giving 
too much detail — let's look at a sketch of a single sensor 
for an earth satellite. The sensor's lenses continuously scan 
a strip of the planet at right angles to the motion of the 
satellite. The motion of the satellite determines the length, 
direction and speed of the scan. The strip scanned at any 
one instant will be broken down into picture elements. 
Thus a strip 185 km (100 miles) long might be broken into 
picture elements 15 meters long. Further, exposure time 
would be such that the satellite motion would be 15 meters 
for each exposure. Thus each exposure or reading of the 
sensor would sense a strip 185 km by 15 meters at a 
resolution of 15 meters square. 

The radiation coming through the lenses of the sensor 
would be broken by prisms or filters into the various 
spectral bands required. The spectral bands being chosen to 




SATELLITES AND COMPUTERS HELP 
MANAGE EARTH'S RESOURCES 

GREENBELT, MD - Operations Command and Con- 
trol Center console for the ERTS-1 spacecraft at NASA's 
Goddard Spaceflight Center. 

The ERTS program is a first step in the merger of space 
and remote sensing technologies into a system devoted to 
developing the ability for more efficient management of 
Earth's resources. Design of the observatory based on the 
highly successful Nimbus Meteorological satellites which 
have regularly returned pictures of the Earth weather status 
since 1964. The ERTS observatory will operate in a polar 
orbit 900 kilometers (about 560 miles) above the Earth and 
return images from two independently functioning multi- 
spectral sensors. A data collection system onboard the 
observatory will gather environmental information from 
Earth-based platforms and relay this data to the ground 
processing facility, at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Cen- 
ter, Greenbelt, Maryland. Federal agencies participating 
with NASA in the ERTS-1 project are the Department of 
Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, Defense and the Environ- 
mental Protection Agency. 



maximize the characterization of surface features of 
interest, while minimizing the number of such bands 
required. Each of the 4 or 5 such bands would have its own 
set of photodectors. Each set of photodectors would have 
12333 elements. Each element would record one of 256 (8 
bits) levels of radiation intensity. The digital output from 
each of the sets of dectors would be digitally compressed 
and encoded and then multiplexed with the signals from 
the other spectral bands. The digital compression reduces 
the volume of data by up to 60% but the encoding for error 
detection and correction adds back about 25% overhead to 
the reduced data. This multiplexed signal is then 
transmitted to earth receiving stations to be stored for later 
analysis. 

The analysis consists of filtering out signal noises, 
enhancing the desired images and identifying what has been 
scanned. These are all done by digital techniques. The area 
of the surface that was scanned becomes a matrix with each 
element of the matrix being the intensity output from one 
photodector. Since the atmospheric absorption is different 
for different wavelengths, the data from each spectral band 
is corrected differently for the atmospheric effects to that 
band. 

Digital enhancement continues with the elimination of 
as much blurring as possible and providing as much contrast 
as possible for objects of interest. The objects of interest 
vary from analysis to analysis. For example, one researcher 
may be interested in corn crops in a given area while 
another is interested in subsurface water and soil 
composition in the same area. 

While outlines may be detectable in several of the 
spectral bands it is the distinctive patterns across the 
different spectral bands that give the actual identification 
of objects. For example, it could be seen from any of the 
matrices that there was a one acre square in the middle of a 
much larger area. But by considering the different spectral 
patterns it could be identified as either a square island in a 
lake or a pond in a pasture or a poppy patch in the middle 
of a cornfield. 

This sort of analysis only tells about the physical 
characteristics within a small area. To reveal cultural levels 
and patterns, it is necessary to accumulate data into a larger 
picture. The amounts of artificial illumination and heat 
given off from an area can be checked to find a city and 
determine its general energy consumption. The comparison 
of the number of roads to the number of fields identifies an 
area as being primarily agricultural or industrial. The 
comparison of the number of forests to the number of 
cultivated fields helps to identify the level of agricultural 
development. 

These techniques can be done today, although not in 
real time as the Enterprise's sensors could. The Earth 
Resources Technology Satellite of 1972 (ERTS-1) had 
sensors of this general nature to be used for analysis of the 
earth's resources. The ERTS have the advantage of being 
able to calibrate their sensors and analysis by scanning 
known areas. However, when it comes to foreign planets 
the problems may be more difficult — for as the crew of the 
Enterprise often discovered, not all planets and civilizations 
developed in the same manner. 



THE AUTHOR 

Tom Kib/er, Technology Editor of Creative Computing 
is Manager of Scientific Programming at the Computer 
Center, Georgia State University where he is also a part-time 
instructor in information systems. Prior to coming to GSU in 
1973, Tom was a designer and researcher for IBM and prior 
to that a consultant and systems programmer at UC, Berkeley 
and Stanford Univ. 
■ i i 



48 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Computers 
and the Weather 



X 




• f 1 



In 1922 an Englishman named Lewis Richardson 
developed a mathematical process for predicting the 
weather by assigning numerical values to such weather 
conditions as temperature, humidity, and barometric pres- 
sure, and plugging them into complex formulas. Unfortu- 
nately, the lengthy calculations made his "prediction" six 
days late. 

In 1946, Princeton University's John von Neuman set 
the first computers to work on forecasting the weather, 
calling the project the most complex problem ever 
conceived. By 1955, the first computer-generated forecasts 
were produced on a regular basis and scientists predicted 
that accurate forecasts were just a step away. 

The battle to predict the weather accurately is being 
waged by meteorologists from Bangkok to Brasilia, and the 
meteorologists' most powerful weapon against Mother Na- 
ture remains the computer. 

Ed Olson, Control Data Corp's world weather project 
manager stated that "the value of all installed computer 
systems used for weather forecasting worldwide exceeds 
$150 million. Control Data holds 40% of that business, and 
that makes us the leader." 

Olson expects the market for computers in the field of 
meteorology almost to double by 1980. One reason for 
such a tremendous market is apparent. To forecast tomor- 
row's weather, scientists compare and anlyze measurements 
of weather conditions gathered twice daily from more than 
10,000 observation points around the globe. The only way 
to process that information, before tomorrow, is by 
computer. 




Meteorologists use satellite photos to support computer weather 
forecasts in predicting the path of a hurricane so timely warnings 
can be given to threatened areas. 



MAY-JUNE 1 975 




According to Olson, there are four problems in 
forecasting weather: "Sufficient information is not yet 
available, and the means to analyze, process and transmit 
the information are still in an embryonic stage." 

The first of these problems scientists hope to solve is 
data collection. Weather measurements - normally wind 
speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity, and baro- 
metric pressure - are collected primarily from ships, 
ground stations, weather balloons, aircraft, and in some 
cases, satellites. Although adequate for landlocked areas, 
this information base is inadequate over the oceans, causing 
poor coastal region forecasts. To solve the problem, 
scientists plan by the end of the decade to position as many 
as 12 weather satellites above the seas, increasing by 10 to 
15 times the present ocean weather information base. 
Through satellite photographs scientists will capture a much 
more current picture of the world's weather conditions. But 
curiously, solving one problem only makes other problems 
more complex. 

"As you gather more and more weather information," 
Olson said, "you need more and more horsepower to 
process it. The first computer Control Data ever sold, a 
1604 used by the Navy for weather prediction, performed 
150,000 operations per second. By 1980 the significant 
amount of additional data available will require a machine 
capable of performing at hundreds of times this speed. 
Right now that machine doesn't exist." 

The increased volume of weather information will also 
make data transmission problems more complex. To fore- 
cast the weather for one region of the world scientists must 
monitor the movement and interaction of weather condi- 
tions throughout the world. Because the weather itself 
knows no national boundaries, this monitoring process 
requires international cooperation. 

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO), has 
developed a global plan to solve the problem of transmit- 
ting weather information rapidly. The WMO plan consists 
of a network of computers that makes a world map look 
like a printed circuit. Linked by telephone lines and 
eventually by communications satellites, the WMO network 
will allow meteorologists to share instantly .a world-wide 
weather information bank. "More countries participate in 
the WMO than belong to the United Nations," Olson said, 
"and the development of the network is being stimulated 
by WMO efforts to assist underdeveloped nations in 
purchasing basic systems." 

Aside from the need for more powerful computers, the 
processing function is also far from perfect. As scientists 
learn more about the intricate relationships among air, 



earth, ocean, and sun, they must refine and change the 
complex formulas which are the basis for the computers 
calculations. 

The computer-generated forecasts must also be 
checked for accuracy, causing costly delays to correct 
insufficient or wrong information. Ed Olson recalls a time 
when a computer receiving weather information from a 
U. S. Navy destroyer fixed the ship's position in a wheat 
field near Salina, Kansas. It was in the Mediterranean Sea. 

Meteorologist Paul Wolff, vice president of Ocean Data 
Systems Inc., notes that "with weather satellites providing 
valuable data above the oceans and with additional com- 
puter power, completely accurate one day forecasts could 
be available before 1980." He added, "Until we achieve 
completely accurate one day forecasts, long range forecasts 
of greater than 5 days are relatively unreliable." 

With a unique spirit of international cooperation and 
the benefit of computer technology, scientists today can 
realistically say "Accurate weather forecasts are just a step 
away." But until that time the surest safeguard against 
wind, rain, and sun remains the invention of the ancient 
Egyptions — the umbrella. 

Reprinted with permission from Realtime. Copyright 1974 by 
Control Data Corp., Minneapolis, MN. 




In the early morning a meteorologist sends instruments aloft with a 
small balloon to monitor weather conditions in the upper atmos- 
phere. 



CLIMATE BY COMPUTER 

Computer simulation of complex systems like the 
atmosphere is a tricky business, but two IBM scientists are 
trying to use computers to answer at least one pressing 
question: Is dust pollution contributing to the global 
cooling trends? Their tentative answer is negative. "Initial 
results indicate that the effect of dust on the earth's 
[climate] has been dveresti mated." 





LOST CITY METEORITE FALL 

On January 9, 1970, a 22-pound meteorite found 
outside the small farming community of Lost City, Okla., 
45 miles east of Tulsa, turned out to be an object of 
historic significance. It was the first meteorite ever to be 
recovered in a search guided by trajectory information 
computed from photographic data, and it was the second 
meteorite whose orbit around the sun, prior to entering the 
earth's atmosphere, was determined from photographic 
observations. 

The find was made by staff members of the Smithsoni- 
an's Prairie Network, a system of 16 automatic cameras in 
seven states that was set up to photograph fireballs and aid 
in the recovery of meteorites. The Lost City Meteorite, 
discovered in a snow-covered field five days after the 
fireball was photographed over northeastern Oklahoma on 
the night of January 4, was the Network's first successful 
recovery of freshly fallen material. 

The fireball, brighter than a full moon, was seen from 
as far away as central Nebraska. Traveling in an east-south- 
east direction, it caused sonic booms heard from Tulsa to 
Tahlequah — 60 miles apart. Network films of the 
meteorite's descent were quickly analyzed; and, with the 
help of a computer to compare photos from two different 
stations, the impact point was predicted to be a spot three 
miles east of Lost City. On January 9, the 22-pound 
specimen was found only a half-mile from the predicted 
impact point. 

Reprinted from The Pulse of the Planet ed by James Cornell and 
John Surowiecki. Copyright 1972 by Crown Publishers, Mew York, 
NY. 



50 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Computer Simulation 
of the Atmosphere 



Since the nineteen-hundreds, 
weather scientists have known 
that all weather is part of a 
complex global fabric, and 
that conditions in one region 
are affected by those in 
neighboring regions. However, 
with inadequate knowledge of 
atmospheric physics and poor 
data-gathering facilities, glo- 
bal forecasting remained a 
dream until after World War 
II. The war sparked vigorous 
weather research, and meteor- 
ologists for the first time 
began building numerical 
models that bore some sem- 
blance to reality. More im- 
portant, the first computers — 
originally used for ballistics 
ranging — became available for 
peacetime use. In 1946, famed 
computer pioneer John Von 
Neumann saw the value of 
high-speed computing for 
meteorology and began to as- 
semble a group of brilliant 
young scientists at Princeton 
University. Using a machine 
finown as the MANIAC (for 
Mathematical Analyzer, Nu- 
merical Integrator and Com- 
puter), Von Neumann's group 
in 1950 made a first— and 
wildly successful — computer 
run of their model. But later 
tests revealed inadequacies- 
according to one account, the 
computer once forecast a bliz- 
zard for Georgia in July. 

Since then, computers and 
models alike have grown 
steadily more sophisticated: 



computer simulation remains 
an expensive and arcane spe- 
cialty flourishing at only a 
handful of laboratories, includ- 
ing U.C.L.A., the Rand Corpo- 
ration, the National Center for 
Atmospheric Research in 
Boulder, Colo., England's Me- 
teorological Office and Prince- 
ion, where the descendants of 
the original group have con- 
tinued Von Neumann's work. 
Now funded by the National 
Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad- 
ministration, the Princeton 
group is using the world's 
largest and fastest computer 
— an Advanced Scientific Com- 
puter made by Texas Instru- 
ments. 

For purposes of numerical 
simulation, the earth's entir» 
atmosphere is divided into 
boxes extending several hun- 
dred kilometers on a side and 
a kilometer or so in depth A 
typical model may deal with 
60,000 of these boxes. The 
computer is fed information 
about the boxes and about the 
basic laws of physics. It is' 
then asked to compute on the 
basis of these laws, what will 
happen to the molecules in 
each of the boxes as tempera- 
ture, humidity and wind speed 
change in neighboring boxes. 
In other words; it is askei to 
predict the weather all over 
the world, and to repeat this 
prediction every five minutes 
or so for as long as the model 
holds together. 



The accuracy and range of 
the prediction obviously de- 
pend upon the reliability of 
the data and the model— and 
perhaps upon some intrinsic 
limits not yet understood. 
"We're now issuing five-day 
forecasts," says Donald Gil- 
man, head of the long-range 
forecast division of the Na- 
tional Weather Service. "The 
consensus is that these mod- 
els may let us see 10 to 14 
days ahead for our daily pre- 
dictions, although estimates 
range from one to four weeks. 
We are appreciably more ac- 
curate than we were 20 years 
ago, but it may be difficult to 
go on from here. That's one 
of the things the Global 
Atmospheric Research Pro- 
gram is designed to tell us: 
how much further we can 
expect to get. These models 
are very sensitive to little 
disturbances. If you give the 
model any sort of random 
kick, such as an error in wind 
speed, on day one the results 
you get three months later 
are very, very different from 
what you get without the kick. 
It will be very difficult to 
distinguish small but real 
atmospheric disturbances 
from random background 



'noise.' " 



To predict climatic 
years or decades in advance, 
it is clearly impractical to 
recompute the world's weath- 
er every five minutes. Even 
with large "boxes," it takes 
tens of hours to run a model 
for a prediction of a week or 
two. With finer, more accu- 
rate grids, say 65 kilometers 
on a side, computation time 
becomes prohibitive. 




LESS THAN 1% OF THE 
EARTH'S SURFACE WATER IS DRINKABLE 

While 70% of the earth's surface is covered with water, only 1% is "fresh" 
. . . and a substantial amount of that is polluted. 




MAY-JUNE 1975 



NASA HAS A SATELLITE (E.R.T.S.) 
570 MILES IN SPACE ... 
TO MONITOR EARTH'S WATER RESOURCES 

The Earth Resources Technology Satellite orbits over the same spots on 
Earth every 18 days. It can thus detect deterioration of water resources. 




51 



Navy display speeds weather forecasts 



A communications and display 
system in prototype operation at 
the Navy's Fleet Numerical Weath- 
er Central in Monterey, Calif., is 
expected to improve and speed 
weather forecasts dramatically. 

Developed by Genisco Technolo- 
gy Corp., Compton, Calif., the 
Naval Environmental Display Sta- 
tion (NEDS) provides full commu- 
nications, remote processing, auto- 
matic graphic storage, retrieval 
and TV display capability up to 80 
data bits. The system incorporates 
a special data-compression tech- 
nique that permits the Naval 
Weather Service to use the exist- 
ing Teletype network for trans- 
mitting weather and oceanographic 
data to the fleet. 

Traditionally the service uses 




Weather conditions are observed on 

a CRT display of the Naval Environ- 
mental Display Station now under 
test at Monterey, Calif. 



facsimile equipment to transmit 
graphic data over costly, wideband 
transmission lines. Weather and 
oceanographic maps received over 
the system often are of poor quali- 



ty and difficult to interpret. Cor- 
relation is done manually, and it 
involves the overlaying of maps by 
hand to make predictions. 

The system being tested has two 
TV monitors and a keyboard that 
permits a forecaster to view alpha- 
numeric and color graphic material, 
while a plotter/printer makes 
copies of any material of interest. 

All data received, selected and 
stored are automatically logged in- 
to a computer index and become 
available, upon demand to the fore- 
caster. He can call for a CRT dis- 
play of the index, which lists the 
weather maps, messages and other 
data in the system's disc storage. 
He then calls for a display of the 
desired weather maps, via the key- 
board, to do his forecast. ■■ 



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COMPUTER PICTURE OF THE SUN 

This is a computer picture taken by the Naval Research 
Laboratory ultraviolet experiment aboard the Orbiting 
Solar Observatory-7 launched from Cape Kennedy on 
September 29, 1971. The picture, received at NASA's 
Goddard Space Flight Center, shows the sun's disc and 
inner corona out to two solar radii (1,382,000 km. or 
864,000 miles). The smooth circle depicts the approximate 
size and position of the visible sun. The wiggly lines are 
isotopes, separating regions of different ultraviolet intensity 
as on a countour map. Two regions of intense solar activity 
in the center of the disc are apparent. This image was 
recorded just two hours after a solar flare occurred in the 
region near the center of the disc which ultimately 
stretched off to beyond two solar radii. 
(Photo courtesy NASA). 



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Lehigh Offers Decks 
For World Models 

Complete programming for a variety of 
"World" models now is available from Lehigh 
University, according to W. E. Schiesser. 

The Fortran IV source decks are available - at 
prices ranging up to $30 per deck of 1,800 
cards — to allow computer-running of the Forester 
World 2 model, the Behrens natural resource 
utilization model, the Boyd extension of the 
Forrester World 2 model, and the Battel le Globe 6 
model. 

Dr. Schiesser informs us that two introductory 
models have just been released, one on the world 
food problem which deals with the ultimate 
carrying capacity of the world's agricultural sys- 
tem. The other model is on the world energy 
system; it contains the essential elements of the 
supply/demand interaction for five major sources 
of energy, with intersource competition. 

Additional information, including references to 
documentation on the different models, is available 
from Prof. Schiesser at the Computing Center, 
Packard Laboratory, Lehigh University, 
Bethlehem, Pa. 18015. 



"Human history becomes more and more 
a race between education and catastrophe." 

H. G. Wells 



52 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Hunting Tornadoes 

For the past two years Dr. Bruce Morgan has spent a portion of each 
spring zigzagging across Oklahoma's checkerboard of farms and oil fields 
. . . searching. In the spring of 1973 he found what he was looking for—a 
powerful storm which spawned a tornado before his eyes. 

"It was a very peculiar sight," Morgan recalled. "The sun was shining 
where we were. There was no sound; we couldn't hear anything. Very light 
debris — tiny pieces of paper — floated down, blowing in the wind like snow. 
Three miles away from us this 3,000-foot tornado looking something like 
a gigantic ice-cream cone was smashing through Union City, Oklahoma. This 
big white column was just grinding its way across the ground." 

Morgan and a three-person team from the National Severe Storms Labora- 
tory (NSSL) recorded the tornado on film and made qualitative scientific 
observations. The team shot more than 40,000 frames of film by the time 
the funnel finished its 10-mile path of destruction and curled back up into 

the clouds. . 

After targeting a region and obtaining a detailed forecast from the National 
Severe Storms Forecasting tenter in Kansas City, the team drove to that 
area and positioned itself on the southeastern edge of the storm, the traditional 
spawning site for tornadoes. As the team chased a storm, often 300 miles 
in a day, it received updated weather information via radio-telephone from 
the NSSL base. . 

Although it was a record lean year for tornadoes, the storm-tracking unit 
went out 18 times during the first spring and monitored 14 storms, two of 
which produced small tornadoes. It was enough 6f a success to convince 
NOAA to renew the project for another year. 

The next spring, the storm trackers had more severe weather than they 
could handle. The United States received the deficit of tornadoes plus a 
few extra. Tornadoes formed at a record rate throughout the entire country. 

For Morgan and the other members of the chase crew, the successful 
tracking and photographing of the Union City tornado was the highlight of 
the season. TTiey believe much valuable scientific information can be culled 
from the Union City film. For example, the tornado's size versus time can 
be reconstructed and compared to the various computer models which have 
been developed. 




WEATHER FORECASTING BY SATELLITE 

AND COMPUTER 

Almost 15 years ago, April 1, 1960, a new era in 
meteorology began with the launching by NASA from Cape 
Canaveral of the world's first weather satellite TIROS-1 
(Television Infared Observation Satellite). Today a facsmile 
of the day's weather by satellite (ESSA Series) is transmit- 
ted by computer to the data center at the Environmental 
Science Services Administration at Suitland, MD. 
(Photo courtesy NASA). 




Minis monitor weather 
at nuclear power sites 

The Atomic Energy Commission 
requires that proposed nuclear 
power-station sites be monitored 
for weather conditions two years 
before the start of construction, 
all during construction and for two 
years after the beginning of opera- 
tion. A computer-based system, op- 
erated by Digital Graphics Inc., 
Rockville, Md., has been monitor- 
ing five unattended sites since 
January in accordance with AEC 
requirements. 

At each site 32 weather-rnomtor- 
ing instruments, installed on a 
400-ft tower, are sampled once 
every 15 minutes by an on-site 
minicomputer — a Varian 620/L, In 
addition to gathering data, the 
computer checks the quality of 
data to indicate instrument mal- 
functions. 

At four-hour intervals, each re- 
mote site is contacted via com- 
mercial telephone lines by a central 
Varian 73 minicomputer, which 
gathers the data. The central com- 
puter also resets the clock at the 
site, clears the memory and can 
provide program updates. It will 
print an alarm message if any in- 
struments appear to be malfunc- 
tioning. 

At infrequent intervals, the cen- 
tral computer serves as a time- 
sharing terminal for a large com- 
puter, transmitting many months' 
worth of processed weather data. 
The large computer is then used to 
simulate conditions such as prob- 
able vapor drift from a cooling 
tower or accidental nuclear-parti- 
cle release. 



MAY-JUNE 1975 



53 



.1=1 

< 

a 



"3 
U 
c 

• i— t 

o 
s 

-a 

o 

Oh 



The most logical place to begin our study of air pollution is with the automobile. 
Table 1 presents some very interesting statistics concerning the relationship between 
cars and air pollution. First, the overall quantity of pollutants (141 million tons per 
year) is absolutely depressing! Second, the automobile plays a discouragingly large 
part in the overall pollution. Certainly in the production of carbon monoxide (93% 
of the total) and organics (66% of the total), the automobile is the villain! Last, 
it is clear that the automobile has little to do with pollution from sulfur oxides 
and particulates. 

Table 1 - Total US Air Pollution ( 1 970) 



Pollutant 


■ Millions of Tons Per Year 


% Caused 


Auto 


Other 


Total 


by Auto 


Carbon Monoxide 


66 


5 


71 


93 


Organics 


12 


7 


19 


63 


Oxides of Nitrogen 


6 


7 : 


13 


46 


Sulfur Oxides 


1 


25 


26 


4 


Particulates 


1 


11 


12 


8 


Total Pollutants 


86 


55 


141 


61 




Before we can start building our automobile* air pollution models, we need to know 
the rates at which automobiles produce the various pollutants. Of course, this is 
continually changing as automobile pollution controls become more severe. We 
will use 1970 estimates (hopefully, by 1980 or 1990 the values will be much lower). 
Also, we will assume a standard velocity of 40 miles per hour. Do you feel this is 
a reasonable choice? The rates of pollutant production are given in Table 2. 



-a 



Table 2 - Average 1970 Pollutant Production Rates 
per Automobile Traveling at 40 MPH 



Pollutants 




Rate of Production 




Gases 


liters/mile 


cubic feet/mile 


grams/hour 


Org. 


4.5* 


6.4 


483 


NO x 


3.4** 


4.8 


231 


so x 


0.1*** 


0.14 


11.4 


CO 


54.1 


76.6 


2710 




(grams/mile) 




(grams/hour) 


Particulates 


0.5 




20 



* Assumes an average molecular weight of 60. Gas volumes computed at standard 
temperature and pressure. 
** Assumes equal parts nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide are formed. Average 
molecular weight of oxides of nitrogen assumed to be 38. 
*** Assumes 4 parts sulfur dioxide to 1 part sulfur trioxide are formed. Average 
molecular weight of sulfur oxides assumed to be 67. 



* This activity is reproduced from the Student 
Lab booklet Air Pollution from the 
Hewlett-Packard Computer Curriculum series. 
Additional background material and exercises are 
in the booklet. The Student Lab book and 



companion Teachers Advisor book are available for 
$1.00 each from Hewlett-Packard Computer 
Curriculum Project, 333 Logue Ave., Mountain 
View, California 94043. 



54 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Let's take an average residential district, composed of a mixture of apartments and 
single family dwellings, as the subject of our first air pollution model. Suppose that 
the residential district is square with one mile sides and that we are concerned with 
the air over the district up to an elevation of 500 feet. Moreover, we will assume that 
no air passes in or out of our residential district and that any pollutants created are 
uniformly distributed through the air up to our "ceiling" of 500 feet. 

These assumptions are typical of the ones we will be making continually. Certainly 
they are crude, and you may be in complete disagreement. However, experience 
shows that it is a valid approach to start with a very crude model and then refine it 



EXERCISE 1 - Estimating Number of Cars 



/ 



How many automobiles would you expect to find in our residential area? 
How many automobiles would you expect to find running at some arbitrary 
time? You will have to make some assumptions to reach your answer. 
Be sure and state these assumptions explicitly. Compare your assump- 
tions to those of other students. Do your assumptions stand up well under 
close examination? 

Now that you have estimated the number of cars, we will structure our first model. 
Let P stand for the number of cubic feet of pollutants at any time, R for the number 
of cubic feet of pollutants produced per hour by each car, and N for the number of 
cars operating at any given time. The simplest model we could construct would be 



Pnew = Pold + (R) (N) . 



(1) 



Pnew is the amount of pollutants at the end of any hour. P Q ld is the amount at the 
end of the previous hour. 




Connecticut's Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) is 
counting on a computer and electronic sensors to help fight air 
pollution. The IBM System/7 in Hartford, automatically records, 
analyzes and informs DEP of air pollution levels gathered by mobile 
trailers filled with electronic monitoring equipment. If pollutants 
rise beyond normal ranges the computer triggers a bell alarm to alert 
the air compliance director. Stage 2 Alerts are issued when people 
with heart or respiratory conditions might be affected by the air 
pollution. (Photo State of Connecticut) 



MAY-JUNE 1975 



55 



EXERCISE 11 - Closing Do wn Freeways 

Use the program from Exercise 8 and any wind velocity you desire. What 
happens to C if the freeways are shut down at some particular instant? 
Sketch a rough graph of the program printout. 

We sti^ have serious flaws in our automobile air pollution model. We have been 
assuming constant values of N, W, and R 2 . Clearly, this isn't realistic. It is common 
experience that there are morning and afternoon traffic rush hours, and that very 
little traffic is on the street in the middle of the night. Also, the wind rarely blows 
with constant velocity. Finally, the dissipation rate R 2 is certainly not constant. 
As we discussed previously, photochemical smog is the result of organics, oxides of 
nitrogen and sunlight. It stands to reason that R 2 should be smaller during hours 
of sunlight than during hours of darkness. 

It will be fairly easy to take these ideas into account and make our model much 
more realistic. The key is to assume maximum values of N, W, and R 2 , then take 
hourly decimal parts of the maximum values. Thus we can set up one list of 24 
factors to be applied to N, another list for W, and so on. Each of these lists consti- 
tutes a time profile of each factor. Now, the model is 



Pnew = Pold + Ri XiN - YiWP o ld/50 -ZiR 2 P 0 ld • 



(4) 



Xi is the traffic profile factor (applied to N), Yj is the wind profile factor, and Z\ is 
the dissipation profile factor. The subscript i is the hour number (1 to 24). So we 
can compare results, let's agree that hour number 1 in any day is from midnight to 
1 a.m. 



EXERCISE 12- A Time Dependent Model 

Write a BASIC program to evaluate the model given by (4) applied to the 
freeway example in Exercise 8. Assume reasonable sets of values for X, Y t 
and Z. Print out C every hour. Sketch your results in a simple graph. 

EXERCISE 13- Political Questions 

Use the model developed in Exercise 12 on a system whose characteristics 
are specified by you. Run the program to get a feel for the pollutant concen- 
trations that come out of the model. Now, suppose that the edict has come 
down to cut down on pollution. Use your model and program to investigate 
the question. Make realistic suggestions as to how the pollution concentration 
from automobiles might be cut down. 




Dm ABUSE. 



m 



riiiiiiviiivi 



HALLOWEEN FOR ADULTS 






58 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Dynamic Modelling 

Jay Martin Anderson 
Bryn Mawr College 

Introduction 

"Dynamic modelling/' as used in this paper, means the 
construction of formal models of systems whose behavior 
in time is followed by computer simulation. Specifically, 
the paper will refer to the techniques of System Dynamics, 
as pioneered and developed by M. I. T. Professor Jay W.' 
Forrester. ' m System Dynamics is a general theory of 
system structure which rests on four essential elements: 

(1) The cause-and-effect links between elements of a 
system and the position of these elements within 
feedback loops are identified. 

(2) The model is expressed in a formal, mathematical 
language in which the qualitative interactions identified 
in (1) are made quantitative. 

(3) The behavior of the model is examined by computer 
simulation. 

(4) The consequences of changing system structure are 
evaluated by iterating on steps (1) - (3) until a viable 
policy or set of policies for the system under study has 
evolved. 

The integrity, if not the beauty, of System Dynamics 
has often been commented upon by Forrester 3 and his 
students and colleagues. Our purpose here is not to debate 
the merits of System Dynamics as a technique or theory, 
nor to expound its practice, but rather to focus on step (3) 
of the preceding four-step program: the computer simula- 
tion of System Dynamics models. 

In recent years a number of System Dynamics models 
have reached the public eye, including Forrester's 4 and 
Meadows' World models, and the several environmental 
models described in Toward Global Equilibrium. 3 These 
models are cast in the computer language DYNAMO 6 , 
developed expressly for the purpose of serving the System 
Dynamics community. DYNAMO affords a one-to-one 
relationship between computer equations and System 
Dynamics concepts, assumes for itself the labor of arranging 
the equations in a computable order and providing printed 
or plotted output. DYNAMO is a compile-and-go processor 
which provides its own careful diagnostics, and is available 
for use in a limited number of computational environments 
from Pugh-Roberts Associates, 65 Rogers Street, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 02142. 

In spite of its simplicity and beauty, DYNAMO falls 
short in classroom situations for at least two reasons. First, 
it is not widely available, and, in all but the versions for 
IBM OS/360 and IBM CP/CMS on the 360/67, it is an 
expensive proprietary product. Second, because it is a 
compile-and-go processor, there is no opportunity to form 
load modules for repetitive classroom use; the cost of 
recompiling the source program must be borne at every use. 

It is to these shortcomings that the present paper is 
addressed. A recipie is provided for translating System 
Dynamics models or existing DYNAMO programs into 
FORTRAN. In following this recipie, the FORTRAN 
programmer takes upon himself much of the effort that the 
DYNAMO processor does for the DYNAMO programmer. 
Nonetheless, the result is a program which is considerably 
more "transportable," and which can reside as a load 
module for frequent classroom execution. 

It will be assumed that the reader is familiar with the 
elements of System Dynamics as contained in Principles of 
Systems . The particular recipie presented here is cast in 
IBM FORTRAN IV(G1) but can easily be modified for 

MAY-JUNE 1975 j 



Using FORTRAN IV 



other dialects. The recipie treats only a subset of DYNA- 
MO, but a subset wide enough to accomodate, for example, 
the WORLD models. 

The emphasis is on recipie: a method for formulating 
System Dynamics models in FORTRAN, but not a program 
nor a compiler nor a processor for so doing. The recipie 
admits some latitude, both in the use of particular 
ingredients and in the embellishments possible in a well- 
equipped kitchen. 

One example of the recipie is presented here: Forrest- 
er's World Model. 4 Two other examples along with the 
technical appendices are available from the author. They 
are a model for "The Tragedy of the Commons" and a 
predator-prey model illustrating one of the concepts in The 
Silent Spring. These two have both been used in the 
undergraduate classroom. 7 

The Recipie 

The purpose of the dynamic modelling program is to 
describe the behavior in time of generalized systems. 
Mathematically, this behavior is the result of integration of 
coupled differential equations. It is presumed that rates of 
change are sufficiently slow that integration may be 
accomplished by a simple coarse-grid approximation to the 
area under a curve comprised of straight line segments. 
Rates, auxiliary variables, and levels may be calculated; up 
to ten such quantities may be tabulated in printed form and 
up to five may be plotted, although the FORTRAN 
programmer may easily circumvent these arbitrary limits. 

The main program includes seven sections. These are 
Specifications, Functions, Inputs, Initialization, Auxiliaries 
and Rates, Outputs, and Levels. This seven-part structure 
corresponds to DYNAMO's ability to order modelling 
| equations. Within each part, the order of the equations 
must be carefully planned by the FORTRAN programmer. 

Specifications and Functions. These sections may be 
thought of as essentially instructions to the FORTRAN 
compiler; the remaining five sections form the logical flow 
of the modelling program, as shown in Figure 1 . 

Input. This section reads control information for the 
simulation, as well as values of constants, table-functions, 
and initial values. Information for the plotter subroutine is 
also read at this point. Parameters of the model may be 
printed to help clarify and annotate the subsequent output. 

Initialization. This section provides for starting the 
simulation clock, some housekeeping, and setting initial 
values of all levels. 

Auxiliaries and Rates. In this section the computation 
of auxiliaries and rates from existing levels, and from 
previously calculated auxiliaries or rates, is carried out. 

Output. Results of the simulation can be printed line 
by line as the simulation proceeds, but information for 
plotting is best saved until an entire page of graphical 
output has been accumulated. The arbitrary limits of ten 
printed and five plotted variables were chosen for simplicity 
in constructing a page-wide line of tabular information and 
for clarity in reading simultaneous plots. A print-plot 
subroutine which forms plots on a line-printer much like 
those formed by DYNAMO, is described in the Appendix. 
Clearly the FORTRAN programmer with more sophisti- 
cated graphical devices will wish to call upon these in 
writing output. 

Levels. The integration is completed, and the clock and 
levels are updated. The details of the seven-step "recipie" 
are given in the appendix. 



INPUT 

read parameters; 
print parameters used 



i 



INITIALIZATION 

start clock; 
set levels to 
initial values 



I 



AUXILIARIES & RATES 

calculate auxiliaries 
and fates from present 
levels 



I 



YES 



OUTPUT 

save values for plotter; 
print values 



i 



LEVELS 

update clock; 
calculate new levels 





YES 




Figure 1 



Required Subroutines 

The recipie described briefly above and in detail in the 
Appendix requires additional subroutines to ease in writing 
DYNAMO-like programs. A limited subset of those pro- 
vided for DYNAMO users might include CLIP, NOISE 
RAMP, STEP, SWITCH, TABLE, and TABHL, as well as a 
simulation-plotter subroutine (SIMPLT). The Appendix 
includes source listings for the above. 

It must be stressed that delays, which appear frequent- 
ly in System Dynamics models, are not simply functions or 
subroutines, but "macros." Delays require integration, and 
therefore the programming of a delay requires insertion of 
FORTRAN source statements into several of the seven 
sections of the modelling program. An example, first- and 
third-order information delays (DYNAMO macros 
SMOOTH and DLINF3) are exhibited in the Appendix. 

Output 

The output of the program comprises three parts: a 
summary of parameters used in the model, a printed table, 
and a plot of various rates, levels, or auxiliaries as a 
function of time. The programmer may choose not to form 
a printed table or not to form a plot if he wishes, or to 
present the output in some other way. In the example, 
primary emphasis is placed upon a simple but crude 
print-plot, which should be within reach of all computer 
systems. 

Example 

The FORTRAN transcription of Forrester's World 
model, taken from his World Dynamics (reference 4) 
constitutes a simple and easily manageable program of just 
over a hundred lines. World Dynamics is ample documenta- 
tion for the model. The source listing and "standard" 
simulation are shown here. 



Appendices 

Four appendices^ to this paper including a detailed 
explanation of the "Recipie," various subprograms, and 
three additional examples are available (free) direct from 
the author. The author has also offered to aid others in 
implementing these models, and will supply (at cost) card 
copies, source listings, and further documentation for each. 
Please write: 

Jay Martin Anderson 
Department of Chemistry 
Bryn Mawr College 
Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010 



l f^ r 1 ester ' J ' W - Industrial Dynamics. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. 

2 • yo i . 

Forrester J. W., Principles of Systems. Wright-Allen Press, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 1 968. 

See, for example, Forrester, J. W., "Counterintuitive Behavior of 
Social Systems. In Toward Global Equilibrium: Collected Papers 
D. L. Meadows and D. H. Meadows, editors. Wright-Allen Press, 
Cambridge, Mass. 1973. First published in Technology Review 
4 73(3): 3, January, 1971. 

Forrester J. W., World Dynamics. Wright- Allen Press, Cambridge, 
^ iviass. i y /i . 

Meadows, D. H., D. L. Meadows, J. Randers, and W. W. Behrens 
6 NI. The Limits to Growth. Universe Books, New York. 1972 

Pugh, A. L. III. DYNAMO II Users' Manual. 2nd edition. MIT 
? Press, Cambridge, Mass. 1973. 
Anderson, J. M., "Computer Simulation in the Dynamics of 
Environmental Systems." In Proceedings of the Fifth Conference 
on Computers in the Undergraduate Curricula. Washington State 
University. Pullman, Washington. 1974. 



c 
c 
c 

c 
c 



PROGRAM LISTING 



WORLD? 

FROM WORLD 0YNAKI C S» bY j. W.F0RREST E R ( C ) WR iGHT-ALLEN PHfSS. 1971 
FORTRAN IV(Gl) TRAKSCKIPTION, J.M.AN0ER S 0N, £eP T 1974 

1. SPECIFICATIONS 

DIMENSION NAME(18),PP ( 51).PNR(51).FCI(51).PP0L(51),P0L(5l) 
LOGICAL RPLOT/.TRUL./ 
COMMON 7 »PP«PNR»PcI«PPOLtPQL 

REAL NR,NPUR,NRUN1,NRFM,NRFR,MSL .NRMM.NRI ,NRUN,LA 

table entries fop table lookup functions 

REAL 8RfMT(6>/1.2,l.,,85. W5..7..7/»NREMT(5)/0...i5«.t>..85.1./. 

1 0RMKTUl)/*..1.6.1.,.e,.7,.6,.53,.5..5,.5,.5/. 

2 0RPHT(7)/.92.1.3,2.,3.2,«*.8,6.8 t 9.2/, 

3 DRPMT(9)/30. t 3.,2.,l.i»,l.«.7 f ,G,.5t.5/. 

<♦ DRCMT(fc),BRCMT(8),BRFMT(5)/0.,l.,1.6.1.9 f 2./. 
b BRPMT(7)/1.02 t .9,.7,.H,.25,.i5«.l/» 

7 ^!!I!^!^ 2 ; < *: 1, : ,fe »! , »'* 3 '* 2/ '» : ^ClT|7)/.5.i..l.«».1.7»1.9.2.8«,2.2/, 

7 CIMT(6)/.l.l.,l.p,2.t».2.6»3./,FpMT«7)/l.o2».9,.65,.3t),.2,.l,.05/. 

8 POLCMT<6)/.05,l.,3.,5.«»,7.« f ,e./. ' 

I «P!:jyi|! , ^ 6 ' 2 * 5 ' b *' e *» ll ' 5 » 15 »S.20./.CFTFRT<5)/l.,.6 t .3,.15..1/, 

°LMT(6)/.2.1.,l.7»2.3»2.7.2.9/.0LFT<5> /o . • 1 . . 1 . 8 . *.«♦ , 2. 7/ . 
B QLCT(U)/2..1.3,1.,.7&..5&, .«»5 , . 38 . .3 , .2 5 . .22 . .2/ , 

, ^Ii^^ l :r\ ,fl5 'i ,,3,, l 5 * ,05, * 02/,CIQR T<5)/.7,.8*l.a.5,2./. 
J NR^MT(ll)/0. t l.,i.e t 2.q t 2.9,3.3,3.b t 3.e,3.9,3.95 f «»./ 

NAf-iELIST /PARKS/ NRUN1 tPOLNl »PRCMT »BRCMT tClGNl tBRtyl tFCl «DRNl ifjRI « 
* CIDi\ll»YEAR 

DATA BRf..ECIRN,NRuN.OPN.LA.PON.Fc.FN.ClAFM,CIGN.CJDN»POLS,rOLN. 
o ? ! ^J ,b ^ S / '°^ 1 " l "* 028 « 13 5.E6,2b.5,l. f l. f .3..05..U25,3.bE9, 

2. 'FUNCTIONS 
THERE ARE NONE 



3. INPUTS 

REAO (5, 10C1) NAME 
1C01 FORMAT (lfeAU) 

READ i5»*) NUPL^Nl PR,MU,NCPU 

N0CAL=NL^NCPU 

NUPT=NUPL*NCPU 

NUPRsNUPR*NCPU 

DTrl./FlOATiNCPU) 

NCASEsO 

1 READ (5,PAPMS,ENU=100 » 

NCASEsNCASE+1 
WRITE U«1003) NAPL.NCASE 
1005 FORMAT (•l«»l8A4/i CASE *,12/) 
WRITE ( fc «F ARMS ) 



C 
C 



2 
C 
C 
5 



«. INITIALIZATION 
NTxO 

P=1.65E9 

NRsNRI 

CI=0,<»E9 

POL=0.2E9 

CIAF=0,2 

NPL»0 

5, AUXILIARIES AND RATES 

T=l900.+FlOAT<NT)/FLO/>T|NCPU) 

CRsP/(LA*PCN) 

CIRSCI/F 

NRFRsNR/r-fU 

CIRA=C1R*C1AF/CIAF(. 
PCLRsHOL/POLS 

NREM=TAPU<NRtMT.rHFR.0.,l...?5) 

ECIR = CIR«(1-CIAF)*NRE'VU-CIAFN) 
MSISLCIR/ECIRN 

BR ^MsTA&HL. ( BRf MT 1 1 SL « n . , 5 . , 1 . ) 
OKMKsTAF hL ( Dh*MT t *£»L 1 0 . 1 5 • t . 5 ) 
FCM=TABLE«FCMT,CR.U.,5.,1.) 



60 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



\ 



c 
c 



FPCl = T AfcHL <FPUT ,C 1PA.0. ,b, 1 1. ) 

FPf'STAFU r (FPPT , PCL K t 0 . t 60 . 1 1 0 , ) 

FNrFPCl»FC^*Ff-r.*Cl !P(rC.FCl. Yf AR.1 >/FN 

DHpK=TAFLr <DHPMT«FoLRtO. »6U. tlO. ) 

OFFhsTM-Hi (ORF -1T«FK .0. »2. t .25) 

nRcPsTAeLF (tjRCMT.Ch.O. ,5. tl. ) 

RRC'PsTAeLUBRCMTtChtO. «5. «1. > 

HKFM = TAt HL < bHF VT t F f< t G . tU. tl. ) 

BRpMsTAt Lt (BHPr:TtFULK.O. ,6>U. ,] C. ) 

CI v =TAPFl(CIKTt*SLtO.,b.,l. ) 

PCLChsl/.BKl (PCLCMT tCir tO. tb. t J . ) 

POLAT = TABLt <PCLATTtPoiNt0.t€>0.,lO.) 

CF IFK = TAPFL < CF I FKT t FR , 0 . , 2 . , . f ) 

QLT -TAF3H (CLWT tCSl tO. ,5. , 1 . ) 

GLC = TAP> L (GLCT.Cfc ,5. ,.b) 

01F = TA6* L<0LFT ,Fk,C ,<.. ,1. ) 

QLP="UfHE(G.LPT,PCl KtO.t60.tlO.) 

NP>if =TABHL < nRP m T ,?SL . 0. 1 1U. 1 1 . ) 

CICRsTAfcHl (CIGRTtCL^/GLFtO. .2. , .5) 

•eRsP*CLlP(BRN.bRM t YF f,K t T ) *BPFr' ! *p^<r'^^*pPC^*BRP , " 

NRuR=P*i LiP<NRuivitr.KU*i: tYEARtT)*r RNr 

0^sP*cLIP( URNt DRT.l t YE/ R t T ) *DRf*v*Q(-F^*DPF' L "'«ORC^ 

C1G = P*C1»"*CLIF (ClGi.tClGfJl » YFAh ,T ) 

CIO = Cl*tLlP(CIL-IMtClli:j? tYLAR.T ) 

POLG = P*CLlF(PCLNtFC-Lr.l t YE AR , T ) *PfL C M 

P0 L A = POl /POLAT 



f. OUTPUTS 

IF (MOT U.'T tNUF'T ) ,r L.O) GO TO 20 

hPL=NPL-»l 

PP<NiPL)=P 

PMR ( fjPL ) sf RFH 

PCI <UPl )=CI 

Pf GUnPL )=POLR 

PCL •NPL)rt.LS*OLI w *GLC*' : 5LF*QLP 
f rTE THAT A LYN.A.VO • SOPPL. E«Ei\ TaR Y • 
IF (NPL.Gfc .51) GC TC *0 



APFtARS Of L Y |fc ThL OUTPUT SECTIOr 



C 
C 

2C 



«»0 



iro 



LE.Vl.LS i FINISH 
IF i TvT.GE.NOCAL ) f-0 TO 40 
PsP+UT*(BF-LR) 
NR=fvR-r.T*rPUR 
CI=CI*PT*<CIG-CIL<) 
P0L=POL*0T*(POLG-PCL A ) 

CIAF=CIAF*PT* <CF IFK*CIQR-CIAF J/CIAFT 
M=M *1 

GO To 5 

CALL SUPLT (5.NUPLtfjPL tNAMEtFPLOT ) 

RPLOT=.F AlSL. 

IF ( iJT-fOC AL ) 2,1,1 

ST 0 P 



SAMPLE RUN 



Sample run of Forrester's World-2 Model below shows input data 
and output plot. The following variables are used on the plot. 

P POP, Population, billions of people 

R NRFR, Natural resource fraction remaining, dimensionless 

$ CAP, Capital stock, billions of dollars 

* POLR, pollution relative to 1970, dimensionless 

Q QL, Forrester's index of the Quality of Life, dimensionless 



WORLD2 BY JWF 
H 0 200 5 

6PARMS NRUN1 = 1. ,POLNl = l. ,DRCMT=.9,1. , 1 . 2 ,1. 5 ,1. 9 , 3 . , 
BRCMT=1.05,1. ,.9,.7,.6,.55,CIGN1=.05,BRN1=.0«*,FC1=1. , 
DRN1= .028 ,NRI=9 ,E11,CIDN1= .025 ,YEAR=197H . , 6END 
0. ' 1. E+10P POP 



0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 



1. RNRFR 

2.5 E+10$ CAP 

50. *POLR 

5. Q QL 



0.0 
0.P 

o.c 

0.0 

o.r 
*i- 
*% 

* $ 

* $ 
* 

* 
* 

1940.*-- 
* 

T * 

1960,7*- 
T 4 
7* 
T* 
T * 

19F-0. y-* 

T * 



2.00 

0. 20 
5.00 

10,00 

1. no 



*.oo 

0,<*0 
10.00 
20.00 

2.00 



6.00 
0.60 
15.00 
30.00' 
3.00 



8,00 
0.80 
20.00 
HO. 00 
**,00 



0 P 
OP 

cp 



I 
I 
I 
I 



$ 



Q-I 

OI 

OP 
Q P 
O P 



IO 
10 
10 
Q 

-Q-- 

GX 
01 
QI 
OI 

-I-- 

$ 



2100. T 



I 


* Q 


IS 




r P 




R 1 






T 


* O 


I 


$ : 


r p 




R I 






I 


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I 


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I 


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"S 


r p 
t p 


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I R 








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I 


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* o 


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* 1 


r p 
r p 


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I R 








* T 
I 


* Q 
* Q 


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$ 


r p R 
[ P R 






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* 0 


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$ 
$ 


r pr 
r R 










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*C 


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T 


♦0 


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[ R P 










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S F. 


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$ ii 












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T 


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10.00 

1.00 

25.00 

50.00 

5.00 
...p 

R: 

R 
R 

R 

•R- 



6 
1 
G 
1 
1 



P PCP 

R NRFR 

$ CAP 

* POLR 

0 QL 



R 
R 



R 
P 



MAY-JUNE 1 975 



61 



By Christopher G. Hoogendyk 

'That's a great deal to make a word mean/' 

Alice said in a thoughtful tone. 
"When I make a word to a lot of work like that, 
said Humpty Dumpty, "I always pay it extra. 

Lewis Carroll 
Through the Looking-G/ass 

A lot has been said about structured program- 
ming. You might ask, "Why another article?" The 
answer is that no paper yet has pulled together all 
the ideas and showed their connection (McCracken 
1973). If you ask the average programmer what 
structured programming is, he will reply with a 
collection of rules and regulations about top-down 
planning, avoiding GOTOs, and formatting code on 
a page. Such a collection of rules is hard to 
remember and easily misused. 

There is also disagreement and confusion about 
when a program can be called "structured". A 
programmer might say he has a structured program 
and a dozen others will disagree. Further, as 
programming theory develops, better methods will 
be used and the definition of "a structured 
program" will change. Let us throw out the idea of 
a structured program versus an unstructured pro- 
gram and look at programs as fitting into a 
spectrum determined by the skill of the program- 
mer, the effort he puts into the program, the 
language facilities, etc. In these terms w6 would 
speak of a well structured program. If Dijkstra put 
his best efforts into designing and writing a 
particular program in the best Algol, we might look 
upon it as an extremely well structured program. 
But, but not drawing a dichotomy, we also admit 
that an average programmer can apply the ideas of 
structured programming in the language at hand 
and come up with a reasonably well structured 
program. There is no reason to develop a powerful 
conceptual tool for programming and then deny its 
use to a wide range of programmers and applica- 
tions. 

Structured programming, then, deals with the 
design and writing of well structured programs. 
Now, what is the central theme of structured 
programming? If you can't identify a central theme 
and show the connection between it and each rule 
then most programmers (like me) will see struc- 
tured programming only as a disconnected collec- 
tion of rules and regulations. This failure to pull 
the ideas together will be reflected in the use and 
misuse of the ideas behind structured program- 
ming. 

The central theme of structured programming is 
that structure should reflect function. This is a 
powerful design concept. It was the theme of 
Frank Lloyd Wright's architecture. When applied 
to programming this concept leads to worthwhile 
results on three different levels: design, coding and 
display. 



mining 



Program Design. 

The first level is the planning or design of the 
overall program. A program should not be a black 
box that is patched together until it works. It 
should represent a systematic development of the 
ideas behind the program. This idea has been 
carefully developed and presented in case histories 
of program design by Dijkstra (1972), and has 
come to be known as top-down program design. 
The practical application of top-down design in 
program development projects is discussed by 
Miller and Lindamood (1972). Very briefly, top- 
down design means starting with a definition of the 
program's purpose and progressively decomposing 
it into subactions until you reach a level of 
description that can be coded directly into the 
programming language you are using. There are 
some key ideas that emerge from top-down design 
which are often expressed independently. One is 
that you shouldn't bind yourself with an early 
decision about particular program or data struc- 
tures. This leads to greater flexibility in program 
design, and makes it easier to modify the design or 
the program itself if the requirements are changed. 
In its simplest form this means that a variable name 
should be used in the place of a recurring constant 
(this is called parameterization). Thus, instead of 
referring to device number 3 in your program, you 
would refer to the INPUT device. Then, at run 
time, INPUT could be initialized to 3. Dijkstra 
(1972) gives some more instructive examples. 

Program Coding. 

The second level at which we can apply the 
concept that structure should reflect function is in 
the actual coding. This was first expressed by 
Dijkstra (1968), although the ideas have been 
around a while longer. Dijkstra pointed out that 
the real subject of programming is the process that 
results from the run time execution of the pro- 
gram. He said, "We should do our utmost to 




62 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



shorten the conceptual gap between the static 
program and the dynamic process, to make the 
correspondence between the program (spread out 
in text space) and the process (spread out in time) 
as trivial as possible." This is the source of the 
objection to the GOTO statement. The GOTO can 
lead to a complicated flow of execution through a 
program text that can be almost impossible for a 
human reader to follow. Work on the formal proof 
of program correctness has resulted in some good 
systematic ideas in program coding. Bohm and and 
Jacopini (1966) proved the logical superfluousness 
of the GOTO statement and showed that any 
problem could be expressed using the simple 
control structures of sequential processes, selec- 
tion, and iteration. These correspond to the normal 
sequential execution of a program, the I F-TH EN- 
ELSE construction, and the FOR-NEXT or DO 
constructions. The inclusion of BEGIN-END 
blocks lends a simple versatility to these construc- 
tions. Using "structured" coding results in real 
benefits for the human reader. It becomes easy to 
read a program from top to bottom without having 
to look back and forth all over the program to pull 
pieces together. A simple example in BASIC should 
demonstrate the strength of these simple control 
structures. 
10 LET T=0 
20 LET T=T+1 
30 LET N=NO*EXP(R*T) 
40 PRINT T,N 
50 IF T 10 THEN 20 

20 FOR T=1 TO 10 
30 LET N=NO*EXP(R*T) 
40 PRINT T,N 
50 NEXT T 

These two pieces of code perform identical func- 
tions. In the first, the programmer starts reading, 
has to think about the initialization of T, reads the 
next two lines, sees the IF, looks back to line 20, 
and begins to put it together. In the second piece 
of code, the programmer reads top to bottom 
without having to stop once. When structured 
coding is incorporated in a large program, where 
there are several levels of control, the improvement 
in readability demonstrated above is magnified 
many times over. 

Program Display. 

The third level at which we can apply the 
concept that structure should reflect function is in 
the actual display of program code on a page. The 
visual structure of the code should convey to the 
reader as much information as possible about the 
functional content of the code. An effective way 
of doing this is to uniformly indent FOR-NEXT or 
DO loops, and to doubly indent nested loops. The 
reader who encounters the FOR or DO can then 
see the extent of the loop immediately without 
stopping to scan through to find the end of the 
loop. An idea from Weinberg (1971) is to have 
programming aids for listing programs that would 



do various things such as indent loops uniformly, 
put keywords of the programming language in 
boldface, move all comments to the right hand side 
of the page, etc. Indenting and the use of white 
space in vertical spacing should be used by all 
programmers. Additional flourishes depend on 
ingenuity and available printing mechanisms. 

Structured programming, then, is the application 
and expansion, at several levels, of the concept that 
structure should reflect function. The usefulness 
and success of structured programming has been 
demonstrated (Baker and Mills 1973). The reason 
for this success is that programming is a human 
activity. When a program is written the work isn't 
done. It has to be debugged. As it is used, more 
bugs will be found, or it will need to be modified 
to fit changing needs. Few successful programs are 
ever static. Programmers spend the bulk of their 
time debugging or reworking program code. Be- 
cause of this, programs have to be readable. Since 
structured programming focuses on clear program 
organization, increased information content and 
greater readability, it has a striking effect. 

The object of this discussion has been to show 
how the seemingly disconnected ideas of struc- 
tured programming are united by the theme that 
structure should reflect function. No attempt has 
been made to expand the ideas into detailed 
discussions or case histories. Those who have a 
serious interest in programming should read 
Dijkstra's articles. 

References 

Baker, F. Terry, and Harlan D. Mills, "Chief 
Programmer Teams", Datamation, December 
1973, P. 58. 

Bohm, Corrado, and Guiseppe Jacopini, "Flow 
Diagrams, Turing Machines and Languages With 
Only Two Formation Rules" Communications 
of the A CM, May 1 966, P. 366. 

Dijkstra, Edsger W., "GOTO Statement Considered 
Harmful", Communications of the ACM 
March 1968, P. 147. 

Dijkstra, Edsger W., "Notes on Structured Pro- 
gramming", Structured Programming, Academ- 
ic Press, New York, 1972. 

McCracken, Daniel D., "Revolution in Program- 
ming: an overview", Datamation, December 
1 973, p. 50. 

Miller Edward F., Jr. and George E. Lindamood, 
Structured Programming: Top-down Ap- 
ia, . p [ oach "< Datamation, December 1973, p. 55. 
Weinberg, Gerald M., The Psychology of Computer 
Programming. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New 



The author graduated from Dartmouth College in January 1973 
!3£ rm,n. !!L b,0,0 9y. He has since served as chief programmer for 
the CONDUIT project at Dartmouth, contributing to the 
development of standards for the preparation of transportable 
programs. His main interests are ecological modelling and 
educational uses of computing. y 



MAY-JUNE 1 975 



63 



Recent Trends in 
Mathematics Curriculum Research 



Marogt Critchfield 
Project Solo, 
University of Pittsburgh 15260 

Mathematics curriculum reform in the last 10 years 
(1964-74) cannot be as neatly characterized as that of the 
decade which preceded it. The years 1954-64 saw the rise 
of a 'glamour movement/ the 'new mathematics/ which 
markedly changed the subject matter of school mathe- 
matics. The principal mechanism used to effect these 
changes was textbook writing. The change was accom- 
plished with unusual swiftness and a good deal of publicity. 
A number of different research projects were involved, and 
yet there appears to have been unanimity regarding the 
changes needed and the topics to be incorporated. It is this 
period of research which most strongly influences school 
practice today, and which is subject to the greatest 
scrutiny. 

By contrast, the ten years of research 1964-74 have not 
yet had a widespread influence on actual school practice. 
Also, the unanimity of the earlier period appears to have 
dissipated considerably during the second. (I suspect that a 
deeper analysis of the earlier period might reveal more 
diversity, as well.) There are a number of developing trends 
in the period 1964-74; I will discuss three of these, which I 
consider most important. 

First, there appears to be a change in the attitude of 
professional educators toward curriculum research. I con- 
sider this to be as important as the development of any new 
movement. Evidence of this can be seen in a booklet put 
out by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics in 
1968 [14]. In contrast to a previous booklet with similar 
cover design and similar title put out in 1961 [13], this 
collection of articles is generally cooler and contains more 
diverse viewpoints. While calling for still more changes in 
the curriculum (and for much the same reasons as the 
earlier book), it does so only after having described the 
problems as having many different facets. It calls for greater 
care on the part of school decision makers in choosing from 
the available curriculum projects. 

"They should not accept change simply because it 
is the current fad, nor should they assume it is 
successful simply because it is new/' 
Some of the most prominent topics of the new math - 
sets, non-decimal number bases, and axiomatics come in for 
criticism^ although no blanket condemnation is expressed: 
it will become increasingly necessary, however, 
for educators to make value judgments as to which 
topics must be stressed heavily for which child- 
ren." 

Significantly, I think, the pamphlet encourages local 
district curriculum development, which it felt had gone into 
a decline with the emergence of large-scale, national 
curriculum projects. 

"Some local directors of curriculum apparently 
have decided that the period of curriculum-making 
at the school or district level was over and that the 
challenge now was to select the best program 
available that had been developed by the 'ex- 
perts' . . . the 'best' may consist of a selection of 
useful topics from several programs." 
This second booklet spotlights the provocative curricu- 
lum suggestions of the Cambridge Conference on School 



Mathematics (CCSM) at the very front. (CCSM will be the 
second major trend discussed here.) However, the authors 
of this pamphlet appear to find many problems that are not 
helped by CCSM and the controversy it sparked. 

By 1973, this cooler attitude seems to have con- 
gealed'. The report of an NSF sponsored conference that 
summer, made the following statements [17]: 

"There is a substantial lack of trust and communi- 
cation between the mathematics education 
community in the universities and that in the 
schools. Efforts need to be instigated to re- 
establish cooperation." 

"At the present time, there seems to be no clear 
consensus with regard to the mathematics which 
should be taught in K-12 and there is an urgent 
need for a program which will examine societal 
needs and delineate the goals of mathematics 
education with sufficient authority to provide a 
broadly acceptable base for curriculum develop- 
ment." 

The second important trend of research activity is what 
J term a continuation and intensification of the spirit of 
'new math.' The Cambridge Conference on School Mathem- 
atics (CCSM) held its first meeting in June, 1963. It was a 
brainstorming session, not a textbook writing one, but its 
recommendations fit into the category of wanting "more 
and better mathematics" in schools. Further, many of the 
old 'new math' approaches and topics, if not their current 
implementation, were re-affirmed in its recommendations. 
CCSM produced Goals for School Mathematics in 1964 [2] 
and went on to write two more documents, Goals for 
Mathematical Education of Elementary Teachers, 1966 [3] 
and Goals for the Correlation of Elementary Science and 
Mathematics, 1969 [4], as well as experimental units 
embodying their goals. 

CCSM's goals, although accompanied by warnings that 
they were tentative and not to be used as a blueprint, were 
an audacious challenge by intellectuals to the schools and 
curriculum developers. 

". . . thirteen years of mathematics in grades K to 
12 should [give] a level of training comparable to 
three years of top-level college training today; . . . 
two years of calculus, and one semester each of 
modern algebra and probability theory." [2] 
"We propose to gain three years through a new 
organization of the subject matter and the virtual 
total abandonment of drill for drill's sake, . . ." 
[2] 

Some of the other features mentioned in CCSM's 1963 
report were: 

(1) "...the parallel development of geometry and 
arithmetic (or algebra in later years) from kinder- 
garten on." 

(2) ". . . structure of the real number system and the 
basic ideas of geometry both synthetic and analy- 
tic .. . considerable attention ... to inequalities in 
the earliest grades." 

(3) "'spiral' curriculum which repeatedly returns to 
each topic, always expanding it and showing more 
connections with other topics." 

(4) "(K-6) should be understandable by virtually all 
students; it should lead to a level of competence 
well above that of the general population today." 



64 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



(5) ... for those who take mathematics only a few 
years after grade school ... an elementary feeling 
for probability and statistics . . . [and] ... a nod- 
ding acquaintance with the calculus." 
The 1969 book [4] contains some interesting thoughts 
about the mathematics and science curricula in general 
which reveal a fuller development of CCSM's point of view- 
Science and mathematics, by their inherent sim- 
plicity in comparison to most areas of knowledge, 
lend themselves to the development in children of 

attitudes of lifelong and general value They 

include (in no order of priority) a conviction that 
through analysis and synthesis comes understand- 
ing; a belief that quantitative measure adds dimen- 
sions to one's understanding that are always 
difficult and sometimes impossible to achieve by 
other means; a tolerance that permits considera- 
tion of all reasonable testable hypotheses which 
are consistant with available evidence; a healthy 
skepticism even toward conclusions supported by 
existing evidence; an optimism based on the belief 
that nothing is unknowable while much remains 
unknown; and finally, a belief that to understand, 
while indeed a means to power, is to enjoy and is 
therefore an end in itself." 

"In his school experience with science, a child can 
make his own observations and organize them, 
then make his own predictions and check them! 
Thus he can directly appreciate the power of the 
scientific style of thought." 

"We do not want these experiments to be done 

occasionally as a sort of special treat but 

sufficiently often that the thought patterns that 
underlie the world of science will be habitual, if 
rudimentary, in every school graduate." 

"A primary message of education should, we 
believe, be that thinking is worthwhile. Unfortu- 
nately, education has often been directed away 
from the imaginative and creative toward uninter- 
esting, rote attention to details." 

"Each child must be convinced that his thinkinq is 
worthwhile." 

This is very exciting intellectual stuff: it's wise and 
idealistic in the best sense of that word. Reading it one 
almost forgets two important things: (1) In spite of a clear 
intention to the contrary, these goals put pressure on 

attention on still more new 
topics and new courses and away from such perennial 
problems as student motivation, teacher's job satisfaction, 
and the real need for students to acquire essential skills in 
an acceptable length of time. (2) The mathematicians and 
scientists who have come together as CCSM conferrees seem 
to have only a very hazy , notion of what the non-mathe- 
matics-using citizen needs: 

". . .difficult and important decisions are better 
made by people used to connecting reality with 
rationality through the vital process of con- 
structing simplified conceptual models for real 

world objects and interactions There are 

severe limitations on a quantitative approach in a 
real life situation; but it seems better to go as far 
as one can with that approach than to abandon 
decisions to guess or superstition." 



Environmental pollution, for example, is among 
the most critical problems of our times. Its 
solution will require the active cooperation of 
every individual. We will not get this cooperation 
until every citizen understands the problem well 
enough to feel the importance of his own role in 
the solution." 

In our highly organized and specialized society I wonder 
whether the ability of an individual to make "simplified 
conceptual models" will contribute directly to his role in 
decision making. Also, is it realistic to imply that a process 
which has severe limitations" in the hands of professionals 
will survive in a classroom setting lacking any but the most 
primitive tools for computation and analysis? 

One curriculum project has grown directly out of 
CCSMs efforts --Unified Science and Mathematics for 
Elementary Schools (USMES), and another has dedicated 
itself to implementing CCSM's goals-- Comprehensive 
School Mathematics Program (CSMP). However, there is 
not the boundless enthusiasm of old, nor the move to make 
swift changes in schools. Many researchers simply do not 
believe that the acceleration proposed is compatible with 
growth in understanding and enjoyment, especially at the 
elementary level. Burt Kaufman, Director of CSMP an 
advocate of CCSM's goals, is cautious: 

"We've simply torn down the entire curriculum 
and rebuilt it from scratch. It could have a very big 
impact if the public is ready for it but it is going to 
be more difficult for the teacher." [12] 
The third major trend in the 1964-74 period is a very 
different kind of phenomenon. It has some, but not all, of 
the aspects of a new glamour movement' --computers in 
education. (While not strictly a development in mathe- 
matics, computing has impinged more on the mathematics 
curriculum than other subject areas for complex reasons 
some social, some technical.) Before 1964, pioneering 
research in computer-assisted instruction by Bitzer at the 
University of Illinois and Suppes at Stanford gave rise to 
high hopes and some inflated statements: 

"the kind of individualized instruction once pos- 
sible only for a few members of the aristocracy 
can be made available to all students at ail levels of 
ability. [Suppes, 1] 
In the period since, and at the present, a good deal of 
research has been undertaken regarding not only computer- 
assisted instruction but a variety of other computer uses in 
education. An idea of the growth of research in computing 
can be gotten from Figure 1. This is a chart of some major 
mathematics curriculum (and related) projects, selected 
mainly from [10] and [15]. It is not exhaustive, but 
should encompass most projects mentioned in widely' read 
journals. Computer manufacturers have actively promoted 
their products to schools for both educational and adminis- 
trative purposes. All this would point to a new educational 
panacea destined to fade or be absorbed without any deep 
effect. However, at least two features of this trend 
definitely set it apart from those have come (and gone) 
before it. 

First, the adoption of computers in schools is taking 
place independently as well as with funded research 
activity. The American I nstitutes for Research Survey [5] * 
figufes of secondary schools using computers for education- 
al or instructional (not administrative) purposes are- 

1965 2% 

1970 13%. 

Even though- these figures must be considered very approxi- 
mate, this growth cannot be accounted for by research 
programs. 



MAY-JUNE 1 975 



*A new survey is scheduled for release in 1975. 

65 











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66 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Secondly, computers are profoundly unWke any other 
technical or curricular innovation that has invaded schools 
before. A computer can best be thought of as a machine 
that can transform itself into any other machine-that is, it 
can carry out any procedure that can be fully described to 
it. Therefore, it can be a medium of instruction, a lunar 
lander, a game player, a mathematical formula cruncher, an 
ecological system, and so on, ad infinitum. One writer 
likens the potential effects of the computer on education 
(and on society) to the effect that would be produced by 
the sudden introduction of writing and the printing press 
on a civilization that had developed without them [11]. 
Furthermore the kinds of 'machines' that a computer can 
be instructed to imitate range from extremely simple to 
extremely complex, offering the potential of a continuum 
of experiences for students (Figures 2 and 3) 



FIGURE 3. A run of a program by an advanced student is 
not shown. For an example of such a run, please refer to 
SUPER STAR TREK found elsewhere in this issue. 



19-0CT-74 



GUESS 0 5:05 PM 
5 RANDOMIZE 
7 X=INT <RND*25> 

10 PRINT M PICK A NUMBER FROM 0 TO 25 " 
20 INPUT A 

25 IF A >25 THEN PRINT" NUMBER TO LARGE-- TRY AGAIN": GOTO 
27 IF A <0 THEN PRINT" NUMBER TOO SMALL— TRY AGAIN f ": GOTO 
30 PRINT " YOU PICKED "A"!" 
35 PRINT" THE COMPUTER PICKED "X" !" 
40 PRINT " YOU MISSED BY "ABS(X-A)" !" 
45 IF ABS<X-A>»0 THEN PRINT" YOU VON'!!!!! " 
47 IF ABSCX-A)<>0 THEN PRINT" YOU LOST!!" 
50 INPUT "DO YOU WANT TO TRY AGAIN !";C$ 
60 IF LEFT CCS* 1 >»"Y" THEN PRINT" AGAIN!" : GOTO 7 
70 IF LEFTCCS* 1>="N" THEN PRINT "THAT'S ALL!" :G0T0 90 
80 IF L EFT < C I* 1 > <> "Y" OR LEFTCCS* 1 )<>°N" THEN PRINT "WHAT- 
NOT IN CORRECT FORM- -PL EASE RETYPE?????": GOTO 50 
90 PRINT" BYE! ! !" 
100 END 

READY 

RUN 

GUESS 05:06 PM 19-0CT-74 

PICK A NUMBER FROM 0 TO 25 
? 5 

YOU PICKED 5 ! 
THE COMPUTER PICKED 20 ! 
YOU MISSED BY 15 ! 
YOU LOST! ! 
DO YOU WANT TO TRY AGAIN !? Y 
AGAIN! 

PICK A NUMBER FROM 0 TO 25 
? 0 

YOU PICKED 0 ! 
THE COMPUTER PICKED 19 ! 
YOU MISSED BY 19 ! 
YOU LOST! ! 

DO YOU WANT TO TRY AGAIN !? H 

WHAT — INPUT DATA NOT IN CORRECT FORM- -PL EASE RETYPE????? 
DO YOU WANT TO TRY AGAIN !? Y 
AGAIN! 

PICK A NUMBER FROM 0 TO 25 
? 228 

NUMBER TO LARGE— TRY AGAIN 
PICK A NUMBER FROM 0 TO 25 
? -1 

NUMBER TOO SMALL- -TRY AGAIN! 
PICK A NUMBER FROM 0 TO 25 
? 5 

YOU PICKED 5 ! 

THE COMPUTER PICKED 12 ! 

YOU MISSED BY 7 ! 

YOU LOST! ! 

DO YOU WANT TO TRY AGAIN !? Y 
AGAIN! 

PICK A NUMBER FROM 0 TO 25 
? 7 

YOU PICKED 7 ! 
THE COMPUTER PICKED 7 ! 
YOU MISSED BY 0 ! 
YOU WON ! ! ! ! ! 



FIGURE 2. Listing and run of a program, GUESS, by a 
beginner (Danny Cohen, Age 10). 



Research in educational computing today encompasses 
a variety of approaches and the interchange of ideas is 
enlivened by a sharp philosophic disagreement between 
those researchers who believe, with Suppes, that "the truly 
revolutionary function of computers in education ... lies in 
the novel area of computer-assisted instruction" [1], and 
those who believe, with Luehrmann, that "computing 
constitutes a new and fundamental intellectual resource. To 
use that resource as a mere delivery system for instruction, 
but not to give a student instruction in how he might use 
the resource himself, has been the chief failure of the CAI 
effort." [1 1 ] , or even more strongly, 

". . . education may have caught a tiger by the tail. 
It comes in the form of an activity called . . . 'solo 
mode' computing. Such use of computers (as the 
tiger image suggests) often exhibits an unexpected 
raw power for eliciting complex learning behaviors 
in ail kinds of students." [7] 
A taxonomy of educational computing is useful for 
understanding the implications of this research. The follow- 
ing is adapted from [8] and is intended to clarify the 
relationships between the types of educational computing. 



10 

10 




MAY-JUNE 1975 



67 



f 



COMPUTER-ACTIVATED LEARNING SCHEMA 



A. DUAL MODE COMPUTING 

The constraints on the learner are (primarily) 
pedagogical ly determined -the CAI lesson or other 
program flows from the program author's concept 
of how the student must proceed in learning the 
subject matter. 

Minor skills required of the student. 

Major design skills required of the program author. 

I. DUAL, AUTHOR-DI RECTED COMPUTING 

-Drill and Practices term CAI used most often 
-Tutorials * here 

-Diagnostic Testing 

-Computer-Managed Instruction (CM I) 1 

II. DUAL, LEARNER-DIRECTED COMPUTING 
-Simulations 
-Games 

-Information Retrieval 
-Tutorials (sophisticated branching) 2 
-Dialogue 2 

All of these types of computing are currently being 
researched and their emergence as integral parts of the 
newer mathematics education curricula lies in the near 
future. A recent conference on the K-12 mathematics 
curriculum gave the following recommendations regarding 
computing: [17] 



1. The computer should be an important part of any 

future curriculum efforts. 

2. Emphasis should be placed on using the computer 

to involve students in problem solving activities. 
Computer use for drill and practice on computa- 
tional skills should receive less attention. 

3. Certain readiness concepts about the use of com- 

puters should be included in the elementary 
grades (1-6). These should involve the use of 
calculators and an exposure to algorithmic 
approaches. 



4. In grade seven, students should be taught a pro- 

gramming language which is appropriate for the 
level of students involved. In this grade students 
should become familiar with information proc- 
essing and the computer should be used as an 
intpgral part of the mathematics course. 

5. The mathematics curriculum in grades 7-12 should 

be studied and revised in order to make optimal 
use of the computer as a tool in mathematics 
courses. 



Computing as a research tool for developing and testing theories of 
learning and instruction is related to this type of computing, It 
is not part of this taxonomy because it does not exist at the 
level of on-going teaching-learning activities. 

2 

Real "dialogue" is still more promise than fact. Research in this 
area is better characterized as part of "artificial intelligence" 
than education. 

3 Two books which emphasize the step-by-step build-up of program- 
ming skills needed for solo mode computing are [6] and [9] . 



B. SOLO MODE COMPUTING 

The constraints on the learner are (primarily) 
reality-determined-the student explores areas of 
the subject matter within the bounds of the 
computer system and his own imagination. 

•s 

Increasing programming skills are required of students. 3 

Major guidance and some computing skills required of 
the teacher. 

III. SOLO, HANDS-ON COMPUTING 

(SOMETIMES CALLED ALGORITHMIC OR 
PROBLEM SOLVING COMPUTING) 
-Writing programs, debugging them, running 
them. 

IV. SOLO, LEARNER-ORGANIZED COMPUTING 

-Model Building (may include writing I, II, or 
III). 

A higher level of student responsibility is 
indicated here; programs are used by others. 

6. A one semester computer science course should be 
offered in grade 12 which may be selected as an 
option. 

7. Societal uses and implications of the computer 
should be studied at some point in the school 
program, possibly in the 10th or 11th grade. 
The writing of modules on this subject that can 
be inserted in a social studies course is encour- 
aged. Another possibility might be the develop- 
ment of a course 'Mathematics and the Com- 
puter in Society'. 

8. There should be continued funding of efforts to 
investigate uses of the computer in a variety of 
instructional modes until more data are avail- 
able regarding the value of these modes. Funded 
projects which explore the potential of different 
uses of the computer in education are encour- 
aged. 

9. If computers are to be systematically employed in 
the above ways in the schools, then the implica- 
tions of this for widespread computer-access 
and teacher education should be effectively 
faced, spelled-out, and dealt with." 



All these suggestions seem good and worthwhile. In 
fact, many of the original thoughts of the 'old' new math 
writers and 'new' 'new math' writers seem good and 
worthwhile. But the problems of their actual implementa- 
tion in school are complex. The notion that such ideas can 
be packaged into infallible, teacher-proof forms, such as 
texts or CAI programs becomes more and more ridiculous. 

If one impression can be derived from the history of 
mathematics curriculum research of the last twenty years it 
is that reform of curriculum (that is, the relatively tangible 
books, lists of topics, courses, and materials that codify and 
justify much of school life) must be related to more subtle 
and far reaching reforms. There must be conscious atten- 
tion paid to the social relations that form the substructure 
of school life.* Such research is difficult to carry out, but 
the researcher involved in these reforms should, as a 
minimum, engage in face-to-face contacts with teachers at 



68 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Good Things From Oregon 



all stages of their development, teachers of teachers, 
professional scholars whose specialty is education, and 
professional scholars in the disciplines to which the 
curriculum must be connected. These contacts should 
influence every stage of the innovation. 

"Required reading for anyone engaged in making changes in schools 
should be Seymour Sarason's The Culture of the School and the 
Problem of Change. [16] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. Atkinson, Richard C. and H.A. Wilson, Eds. Com- 

puter-Assisted Instruction, A Book of Readings, 
Academic Press, 1969. 

2. Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics. Goals 

for School Mathematics, (Educational Services 
Incorporated) Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1967 

3. — -. Goals for Mathematical Education of Elementary 

School Teachers, (Education Development Center, 
Inc.) Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1967. 

4. — . Goals for the Correlation of Elementary Science 

and Mathematics, (Education Development Cen- 
ter, Inc.) Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1969. 

5. Darby, C. A., Jr. et al. Survey of Computing Activities 

in Secondary Schools, American Institutes for 
Research, Silver Springs, Md., October, 1970. 

6. Dwyer, T. A. A Guided Tour of Computer Program- 

ming in BASIC, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 
1974. 

7. Dwyer, T. A. "The Significance of Solo-Mode Com- 

puting for Curriculum Design," EDU-lssue No. 
13: Fall, 1974. (Education Products Group, Digi- 
tal Equipment Corp., Maynard, Mass. 01754) 

8. Dwyer, T. A. and M. Critchfield. "CATALYST: CAI in 

a General Time-Sharing Environment/' EDUCOM 
Bulletin (Winter, 1970). 

9. Dwyer, T. A. and M. Critchfield, A Computer Resource 

Book-Algebra, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 
1975. 

10. Lockard, J. David, Ed. Seventh and Eighth Reports of 

the International Clearinghouse on Science and 
Mathematics Curricular Developments (1970, 
1972), (American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, Washington, D. C.) Science 
Teaching Center, Univ. of Md., College Park, Md. 

11. Luehrmann, Arthur W. "Should the Computer Teach 

the Student or Vice Versa," Proceedings of the 
Spring Joint Computer Conference, Amer. Fed. of 
Info. Processing Societies, 1972. 

12. Martin, Richard. "Sum & Substance," Wall Street 

Journal, May 31, 1973. 

13. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (Regional 

Orientation Conference). The Revolution in 
School Mathematics, A Challenge for Administra- 
tors and Teachers, 1961 . 

14. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, The 

Continuing Revolution in Mathematics, 1968. 

15. National Science Foundation. Education Programs in 

Mathematics for Elementary and Secondary 
Schools, April, 1974. 

16. Sarason, Seymour B., The Culture of the School and 

the Problem of Change, Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 
Boston, 1971. 

17. Springer, George (Dir.). Report of the Conference on 

the K-12 Mathematics Curriculum (NSF), June 
1973, Mathematics Education Development Cen- 
ter, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, In. 47401. 



Judging from the number of CC subscribers from 
Oregon and the tremendous number of people from Oregon 
at various conferences and meetings, it is certainly one of 
the leading states in computer education. We had hoped to 
have a comprehensive article about computing activities 
throughout the state, but apparently the people I spoke to 
are just too busy doing their own publications to do a piece 
for us. Hence, we'll just note several conspicuous examples 
of the good things happening in Oregon. 

Oregon Computing Teacher produced by the Oregon 
Council for Computer Education, is an informal magazine 
of about 72 typewritten pages per issue which appears 4 
times a year. It contains a variety of original and reprinted 
material of interest mainly to high school and undergradu- 
ate college faculty. (It is not aimed at students.) We're 
impressed with the uniformly high quality of this publica- 
tion. It's available for $5.00/yr from Oregon Council for 
Computer Education, 4015 S. W. Canyon Road, Portland, 
OR 97221. 

Computers in Education Resources Handbook is a 
comprehensive 500-page handbook about the uses of 
computers in education, primarily at the pre-college level. It 
covers both instructional and administrative uses of the 
computer although it is clearly stronger on the instructional 
side. It discusses hardware (lightly), software (moderately), 
applications (heavily), training, surveys, and sources of 
additional information (excellent). First published in 1973 
it is quite current, even so a new edition is being published 
in early 1975. Available for $10.80 from Dept. of Com- 
puter Science, Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403. 

ECO-NET is a non-profit environmental education 
network emphasizing the exchange of information relating 
to the environment, energy, communications and, yes, even 
computers. A 16-page monthly newsletter is called RAIN. 
Despite its Pacific Northwest bias, it's one of the very best, 
ranking along side Whole Earth Catalog, Epilog, and 
CoEvolution Quarterly. At the moment, the price is right 
too. Rain is available free (until their grant runs out) from 
Environmental Education Center, Portland State Univ., 
P. O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207. 

An apology: The Wizard graphic and note on pg. 25 of 
the Jan-Feb Creative Computing came from the May 1974 
issue of Oregon Computing Teacher which we neglected to 
mention. Sorry. 

A request: When you write for materials such as those 
above or from advertisers, please mention Creative Com- 
puting. That encourages those groups to keep us posted 
and/or keep advertising with us. 



COMING IN CREATIVE COMPUTING! 

Jul-Aug 1975. Don't look for it this year. 



Sep-Oct 1975. 



Nov-Dec 1975. 



Computer Literacy 

Learning and Innovation Activity. 
Civil War — A tutorial program. 
Test scoring by computer. 
Word Scramble - A new game. 
What Do You Value? 

The Computer Threat to Society 

Multivac - A new story by Isaac 
Asimov. 

The computer and the rights of 
citizens. 

Computer Crime. 

Four new games and a super poster! 



MAY-JUNE 1 975 



69 



CREATIVE 
COMPUTING 

Reviews 




Equations: The Game of Creative Mathematics, by Layman 
E. Allen. $6.50, WFF'N PROOF, 1490-SM South Blvd., 
Ann Arbor, MI 48104. 

Instructional Math Play (IMP Kits: Simulations of Com- 
puter Assisted Instruction Programs, by Layman E. Allen 
and Jon K. Ross. $1.00 per kit, .$15.00 for set of 21. 
WFF'N PROOF. 

On-Words: The Game of Word Structures, By Layman E. 
Allen, Frederick L. Goodman, Doris J. Humphrey, and 
Joan K. Ross, $6.50, WFF 'N PROOF. 

It is both convenient and natural to review these two 
games, and the associated instructional-simulation aids, as a 
single publication because they are, besides being designed 
by the same person or persons, very closely related in 
purpose, playing equipment, rules, and interest for the 
players. 

EQUATIONS is played by two or more persons (or, as 
the IMP kits indicate, by a person and a computer program) 
with the objective of finding ways of expressing equations 
in simple arithmetic operations. One player defines a goal 
(one side of the equation) by selection of some of the 
numbers and operators provided by a roll of a dozen or 
more special dice. The players then try to come as close as 
possible to supplying a left-hand side, without actually 
doing so, by selecting one die at a time from the remaining 
dice. Getting too close to a solution, or preventing all 
solutions (by eliminating crucial dice from play) loses the 
game; successfully challenging an errant opponent wins. 

The above description does not do full justice to the 
rules. Let me hasten to add that the actual rules supplied, 
including variants for those who find the standard rules too 
tame, covers forty (40) pages of printed text, so there is no 
way that a review can do justice to the rules. In fact, the 
standard rules, once understood, are not all that complex: 
rather, it is the presentation that is complex. This is the 
major problem with what are basically very interesting 
games: the statement of the rules is far too formal and 
complex. 

The IMP kits contain a summary of the rules which is 
vastly easier to read and comprehend, and I would strongly 
recommend that anyone who buys EQUATIONS get some 
of the IMP kits as well. They provide solo practice as well as 
a clearer understanding of the rules (in Kit No. 1 only.) 



Once the rules have been assimilated, the game can be 
played by elementary school children (4th grade up) and 
will be enjoyed by many, I believe. The games have 
considerable popularity in some schools in which they are 
used. 

My two boys (5th and 7th grades) found that they 
picked up new insights into arithmetic in their first 
attempts to play. However, they do not seem to be ready to 
accept the game as part of their regular selection (they are 
currently hung up on Cribbage.) 

The play of ON-WORDS is similar: the goal is the 
length of a word, which is to be made up from a selection 
of the remaining cubes, which have letters on them. The 
general structure of the rules is identical, including, 
unfortunately, the complexity of the explanation. I find 
the game interesting and challenging, but an attempt to 
introduce it to a group of word-game enthusiast friends was 
met with furrowed eyebrows and eventual rejection. Maybe 
it's my poor powers of explanation, maybe they are just 
not ready for a game of this sophistication, but we did not 
get past the first game. It is a real pity that the author did 
not spend less time making the rules rigorous in favor of 
making them clear and concise. 

L. D. Yarbrough 
Lexington, Mass. 



* * # 



Learning for Tomorrow: The Role of the Future in 
Education, Alvin Toffler (Ed), 421 pp. $2.95. Vintage 
Books Div. of Random House, New York. 

■ 

"All education springs from images of the future and 
all education creates images of the future." To support this 
thesis, editor Alvin Toffler {Future Shock) and eighteen 
leading psychologists, educators, futurists, social scientists, 
psychiatrists and humanists have joined together to put 
forth proposals for educational reform. With a dramatic call 
for "education in the future tense," they show why action 
learning, value clarification, racial and sexual equality, 
along with simulations, games, science fiction and other 
educational innovations need to be integrated and fused 
with a sense of "future - consciousness" if we are to design 
effective learning systems. This sense of "future - con- 
sciousness" must be developed early in the child's educa- 
tional experience so that desirable futures can be planned 
for, and undesirable futures avoided. Teaching children to 
"model build", to see alternative solutions, to assume the 
responsibility for the implications of such alternatives, 
should be the primary role of education if we are to survive 
in a world bombarded with rapid technological innovations. 

Each chapter is a self-contained unit, written by a 
different author on a different aspect of developing "a 
sense of the future". Yet, Toffler has done such a superb 
job of editing that the reader feels the continuity of a single 
authorship. The book is absorbing, developing a sense of 
urgency for some drastic change in our thinking on why we 
educate. It is also an eye opener, especially in the area of 
sexual and racial inequities. "Why Women See the Future 
Differently from Men" and "The Black Child's Image of the 
Future" should produce in the conscientious educator some 
sleepless nights. 

This book is a must for all educators, instructors, and 
administrators alike. It provides challenging alternatives in 
approach to all areas of study. It has some vitally important 
things to say about the necessity for "real" change in our 
educational institutions as we encounter ever more rapid 
rates of technological change and accommodating changes 
in responding social structures. 

Beginning where most proposals for education reform 
leave off, it demands change not merely in how, where and 
when we educate, but in WHY we educate. 

J. Leone 

THE Journal, Acton, MA 



70 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



< 



"Official" Review Policy 

For the most part, reviews in Creative Computing come 
from two main sources: 

1. From time to time someone writes me a letter and 
says, "I read such-and-such a book and would you like 
a review of it in the magazine." I invariably say "yes, 
of course/' and maybe the person writes it and maybe 
not. 

2. Lynn Yarbrough, our Reviews Editor, sends a book (or 
game, etc.) to one of our volunteer reviewers along 
with a "Guideline for Reviewers" and asks for a review 
by such and such a date (about 2-3 months for a book) 
which sometimes is met, but generally not. 

Occasionally Lynn or I review a book if we feel we don't 
want to trust it to the vagueries of the Official Review 
Process. Or in fact, if we want to read the book ourselves. 

Where do we get the books we review? Most publishers 
regard any magazine printed on newsprint a member of the 
Alternative Press and, therefore, Not Worthy to Receive 
Free Review Copies of books. Occasionally I meet a 
salesman or representative of a publisher at a conference 
and he is astounded that I am actually Human and Genuine 
and Serious and not a Freak even though I am publishing a 
magazine on (Yecch) Newsprint. And maybe they put in a 
good word and we get a couple of books to review 
(sometimes with a bill following in 10 days; in which case I 
usually return the book). 

However, most of the books for review I actually buy 
because they look interesting or controversial or because I 
want to read them. That's why they're not all new, or 
strictly about computers, and include titles like How To 
Survive in Your Native Land and Future Shock and science 
fiction and adventure and other neat things. 

So I guess what I'm trying to say is this. If you want to help 
us out, we'd love it. If you've read a good book that may be 
of interest to other Creative tomputing readers, send for 
our review guidelines and then write a review for us. Or 
volunteer as a reviewer and eventually we'll send you a 
book to review. Or if you're a publisher (or have a publisher 
friend), send us a book or game for review — without a bill 
following. Or if you're none of the above, read our reviews 
and enjoy them and buy the books we recommend because 
you'll probably enjoy them too. -DHA 

THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE 
HAS LOST OVER 1/3 OF 
THE COMMERCIAL MAIL 
IT HANDLED DURING 
THE LAST 10 YEARS 




How To Survive in Your Native Land, James Herndon, 179 
pp. $1.25, Bantam Books, New York, 1971. 

Contrary to the title, this book is not really a survival 
manual. In fact, it probably points out more pitfalls and 
reasons that most kids will have a hell of a time surviving in 
schools than it indicates solutions. The author, a junior high 
teacher for 10 years, found that an open approach worked 
for him but he's rather pessimistic whether it will be widely 
emulated. Indeed his own principal thinks it's maybe OK 
but can't really see what's wrong with Proven Establish- 
ment Methods. 

I could give you all the beautiful adjectives and 
superlatives and reasons you should read this book whether 
or not you're an advocate of open education. The main 
reason is that there's a damn important message about the 
nature of schools as an institution buried in the humor and 
poignancy and hope and pessimism. I'll let Herndon tell 
you about part of it. "In all public schools in the United 
States the percentage of kids who cannot really read the 
social studies textbook or the science textbook or the 
directions in the New Math book or the explanations in the 
transformational grammar book is extraordinarily high. 
Half the kids. The school tells everyone that reading is the 
key to success in school, and no doubt it is, a certain kind 
of reading anyway. Does the school then spend time and 
effort teaching those kids who can't read the texts how to 
read the texts? Shit no, man. Why mess up a situation made 
to order for failure? The school's purpose is not teaching. 
The school's purpose is to separate sheep from goats." 

Whether you're a student, teacher, or whoever - skip a 
day of school and read this book. You'll be better off for it. 

David H. Ahl 



Plant a THINK TANK anywhere 
and watch the minds grow! 



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PROPAGANDA (social studies) 
ON-WORDS (word structures) 
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TRI-NIM (problem solving) 
REAL NUMBERS (arithmetic) 
WFF (beginner's logic) 
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MAY-JUNE 1975 



71 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 

Feature Review 

34 Books on BASIC 



Stephen Barrat Gray 

Gray Engineering Consultants 

260 Noroton Ave. 

Darien, Conn. 06820 



Installment # 2. Continued from the Mar/Apr issue. 

5. Introduction to Computing Through The BASIC 
Language, by Richard L. Nolan. Second edition pub. June 
1974 (first edition pub. June 5, 1969), by Holt, Rinehart 
and Wmston, New York, N. Y., 352 pages, 6x9, $9.00 
(hardcover). 

Some very good parts, but too disjointed, too many 
tangents. Rating: C 

This review could have been rewritten to reflect the 
changes made in the recently -received second edition, but 
there are not many of significance, and it may be of interest 
to show how an author attempted to improve his text, but 
left the biggest fault untouched. 

Although some of the changes are notable improve- 
ments, the allover effect is still the same, and so the 
one-line judgment and rating given for the first edition still 
apply to the second, except that the book might possibly 
rate a C+ now. The next dozen paragraphs refer to the first 
edition; the remaining ones delineate the changes, additions 
and deletions to the second. 

The beginning is promising, with one of the most 
practical openings of all these books: the formula for 
calculating "the present worth of an investment for some 
number of years hence" is given. Then the author shows 
how the equivalent BASIC program line is almost the same. 
Four more lines are added to make the book's first 
program, which is then expanded upon so that several sets 
of constants can be used. These two programs and then- 
explanations take up the first chapter, five pages. 

But by page 13, the book begins to fall apart, with four 
pages that give a long table of nine BASIC definitions and 
twelve statements, with two or three examples of each. Too 
much is given in too short a space. This material should be 
spread out over a chapter or two, with much more text and 
also more examples. 

Another "too much, too soon" item starts on page 19: 
three and a half pages of the error statements printed out 
by the batch-mode BASIC compiler (UWBIC) in response 
to 35 BASIC statements that contain one or more 
syntactical errors. If this is meant to show the wrong way 
of writing statements, there must be a better way of doing 

Nolan goes into flowcharting early, and uses a good 
number of flowcharts in the text. 

Page 47 starts a 69-line program, with a two-page 
flowchart, but there is no run to show- what the program 
can do. 

o?? 6re are ten cha P ters: Introduction, Introduction to 
BASIC, BASIC Definitions, three chapters on 13 BASIC 
statements and the functions, Concept of a Computer 
(computer simulation model), Computer Hardware, Com- 
puter Software, Conclusion. There are five appendixes- 
time-sharing and batch-mode BASIC, techniques of 
flowcharting, matrices and MAT statements, additional 
BASIC statements (strings, computed GO TO, SGN, DEF, 
etc.), and some general application programs. 

BASIC is covered in the first six chapters and 96 pages. 




There are review questions and exercises at the end of each 
of these chapters (and of most of the others), with full 
answers and solutions at the end of the book. 

Chapter 4 starts with a vocabulary and dryness that do 
not make this an easy book to read: "The syntactical 
relations and grammar discussed in the previous chapter 
provide the basis for developing a BASIC program. In this 
chapter, the response elicited from the computer by the 
REMARK, READ, DATA, END, LET, PRINT, and GO TO 
statements will be explained. This will be done in the 

context of the logic required to " The first example of 

each of these statement is in words, such as "READ 
variable, variable . . ., variable," after which actual examples 
are usually given. The first program in this chapter is a 
slight enlargement (via REMARK statements) of the very 
first program, which determines present worth. Memory 
cells are explained with a drawing of several mailboxes. The 
same program is used throughout the chapter, basically 
unchanged, to illustrate the use of the various statements. 
There are 18 excellent Review Questions and Exercises, 
seven of them requiring programs to be written. 

Chapter 5 covers IF/THEN, FOR/NEXT, DIM, and 
STOP. The program on page 43 is actually only the second 
program in the book, if one discounts the several variations 
on the first one. This second program seems more complex 
than it really is, perhaps due to the nine REMARK 
statements in a program that has only six active lines plus 
two DATA statements. Again, the language is stiff and 
pedagogic, with words such as "concatenated." The third 
program (sorting, and counting in categories) is much too 
long so soon, unless the author's idea is to get the reader 
used to long programs. The principles could be explained 
with one or more much shorter programs; this one is 69 
lines long (20 are REMARK lines), but without a run. A 
grade-sorting program is so long that the flowchart takes up 
three pages. The chapter contains too many programs 
without RUNs: ten of them, and only one with an output. 

Chapter 6 is on functions and GOSUB/RETURN. A 
"nonsensical program" illustrates four stored functions, 
when several shorter, meaningful ones would be much 
better. RND is explained in one sentence: "The function 
returns a six-digit, uniformly distributed pseudo-random 
number between zero and one." The program using RND, 
concerning a silver miner's "grubstake," is explained in only 
five short sentences, leaving many readers still largely in the 
dark about RND. Perhaps as an exercise for the brighter 
students, the chapter ends with a time-sharing simulation 
program that computes a historical analysis of use (average 
wait, longest wait), with 76 lines and a 50-box flowchart 
three pages long. 

Chapter 7 is Concept of a Computer, subtitled 
Computer Simulation Model. This goes into the writing of a 
BASIC program that will translate "Op-codes for 
machine-language programming system of model com- 
puter" (in machine language), so that programs can be 
written directly in the "pseudo-machine-language," as 
required in most of the exercises accompanying this 
chapter. A fascinating chapter, but this elementary book is 
not the place for it, not right after six introductory 



72 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



chapters on BASIC. . 

Chapter 9, on Computer Software, goes into the 
different levels of programming languages. There are some 
very good sections on system programmers, application 
programmers, and programming systems. 

Appendix B, 20 pages on Techniques of Flowcharting, 
includes an entire page showing a table of USASI Working 
Groups, X3 Series. Why? The coverage of flowcharting is 
very thorough, although it is nearly all taken up with 
symbols and their meanings, and only two flowcharts are 

show 11 - _ « 

Appendix E covers Some General Application Pro- 
grams: chi-square, T-test, correlation analysis, matrix 
inversion, linear programming, grade analysis. Much too 
much in an elementary text; the linear program is almost 

300 lines long. ■ > \ j »«. 

The Selected Bibliography lists 50 books and other 
publications, on a variety of computer subjects, from 
biomedical programs to business-data programming. 

The last item in the book is a 12-page glossary. The 
inside covers contain a synopsis of BASIC definitions, 
functions and statements. 

The preface calls this "an integrated approach to 
teaching computing." Disjointed is a better word, as there 
are too many tangents and space-fillers. The very simple is 
next to the very complex, all too dizzyingly often. There 
are some very good parts, making this a good source book 
for a teacher, or perhaps as a second or third book, or for 
browsing. But not as a first book, either for learning about 
BASIC or about computers, for the solitary reader. 

The second edition is essentially the same as the first, 
except that it is now in hardcover instead of paperback, the 
entire book has been reset with different typefaces, and the 
text reworded and expanded (from 262 to 352 pages), with 
two new chapters (model building, programming lan- 
guages), the appendix on flowcharting turned into a 
chapter, the three chapters on BASIC commands reworked 
into four chapters on BASIC statements, and two new 

appendixes added. 

As an example of the rewording, the first sentence of 
the preface in the first edition is: "Computing no longer 
belongs to an 'esoteric cult.'" In the second edition: 
"Computing is no longer the sole province of an 'esoteric 
cult.'" And so on, with slightly different words but the 
same content, in the same paragraph groupings, for the rest 

of the chapter. . „ 

The first chapter was previously an "introduction and 
was about the advantages of using computers, with some 
specific applications; now it is "problem solving and 
algorithms*' and is mainly about defining the objective, 
formulating a solution, and carrying it out, with several 
examples, such as calculating the volume of a cube, 
preparing Boston baked beans, and preparing a payroll. 

The second chapter, on. flowcharting, was previously an 
appendix, and this time omits the entirely superfluous chart 
of USASI Working Groups, X3 Series. Previously, there 
were mostly symbols and only two flowcharts; now there 
are six flowcharts, for making Boston baked beans, digging 
a hole, determining whether a number is prime, etc. 

Chapter 3, on BASIC elements, starts almost exactly 
the same as chapter 2 in the first edition. The first example 
is on interest; the second edition inserts a few sentences 
showing by exactly how much the principal would increase 
for several years, before presenting a formula for 
determining interest, along with a flowchart. The same 
programs are presented in both editions, with basically the 
same text. 

Chapter 4, on concepts and definitions, is almost the 
same as before, bewildering to the beginner, with all the 
definitions and statements presented at once, along with 
the same 35 statements containing errors. 

The three chapters on BASIC "commands" are turned 
into four chapters, by taking GOTO from one chapter and 
IF-THEN from another, to make a single new chapter. 
INPUT is added to the first of these four chapters, along 
with a small drawing to illustrate a data sjack. 

New page 52 shows that the second edition was 
designed with less care than the first. It is now crowded, 



with a typeface that seems rather loud when compared with 
the simpler and more elegant type of the first edition, page 
30. However, the new type is larger, and thus easier to read. 

A figure has been added in the section on PRINT, to 
show a page divided into five print zones, each 15 columns 

Two pages have been added to the FOR/NEXT section, 
to illustrate looping in greater detail, with a program that 
sums five numbers, and a table to show the "contents of 
memory cells during execution of FOR/NEXT loop." A 
second illustration has been added to show legal nested 
loops, and there is now one to show illegal nested loops. 

The coverage of DIM is increased by two pages, by 
rewriting and expanding the text around the same programs 
and flowcharts, and adding a page with a chart that shows 
"contents of memory cells during execution of sort 
program." New pages 96 to 106 run exactly parallel with 
old pages 62 to 72, with the same figures, and almost the 
same text. 

The random-number function is explained much better 
now, instead of with only sentence; three and a half pages 
have been added, with a coin-flipping simulation program 
and flowchart, a discussion of uniform distribution, etc. 

Under GOSUB/RETURN, two figures have been added 
to show pictorially the use of subroutines and of nested 
subroutines. 

The time-sharing simulation program is expanded, with 
a longer program and more complex flowchart, although 
the program is not nicely indented into related groups of 
lines as was the old one. 

The new application chapter on model building is 
written in a stiff and highly formal manner. Two 
deterministic model* are presented: automobile parts 
economic-order-quantity (with a 1 3-line program) and land 
investment (with a 25-line program not sufficiently 
explained by the three sentences discussing the fairly 
complex program and flowchart); this last is more 
confusing than a helpful example would be. The stochastic 
simulation models involve a queuing problem (at a car 
wash), decision trees (introducing a product), with long 
programs: 77 lines for car wash, with only two sentences of 
explanation and no flowchart; a long, seven-page 
explanation of the decision-tree problem, with three trees, a 
long flowchart with four subroutine charts, and a 115-line 
program, with only a paragraph of explanation. 

The chapter on the computer simulation model is 
expanded by "specifying in BASIC the major parts of the 
computer model," and lengthening the program by adding 
DATA statements and showing an output of the program. 

The chapter on computer software adds a flowchart 
showing the translation process, a table giving the IBM 
360/370 Operating Systems Summary, and a table with the 
name and type of operating system used on twelve 
computers from eight manufacturers, from the Burroughs 
B 5500 to the Xerox Sigma 5/7. Much of this chapter has 
been rewritten, reshuffled, and expanded. Where the first 
edition was about system programmers, application 
programmers and the computer process, the second is about 
language processors, operating systems, and the technical 
services group, and covers system and application 
programmers in five sentences. Some material is repeated, 
with changes, such as the portion on programming systems. 
There is a completely new section, on control programs, 
service programs, and on the eight types of operating 
systems developed "to date." There is even a note cn the 
"unbundling of IBM." 

Chapter 13, on programming languages, is an 
enlargement of a portion of the old chapter on software. 
Only one figure is from the first edition, showing the levels 
of programming languages. The new material consists of a 
page each on FORTRAN, COBOL, PL/1, BASIC, ALGOL, 
and RPG. However, the only examples of these are in the 
figure taken from the first edition, which is a program 
showing a simple loop operation written in binary, 
hexadecimal, assembly language, and four of the high-level 
languages. The pages on the six languages are informative as 
to their origins, but tell much too little about the languages 
themselves. 



MAY-JUNE 1 975 



Appendix A, % on matrices, is exactly the same as 
previously, with the addition of a footnote stating that "the 
introduction to matrices is based on an unpublished paper 
written by David L. Smith, currently a lecturer at the 
University of Illinois." 

Appendix B, on Additional BASIC Statements, covers 
some of the same areas as before; two of the programs that 
before had no output, now have one. There are now two 
pages on TAB and PRINT USING, with a program that is 
supposed to print HI three times (but somehow prints it 
five times), and a page on RESTORE. 

The two new appendixes are on Using Files in BASIC, 
with five pages on creating and using files, three programs, 
and five-plus pages on Using BASIC on a Mini-Computer, 
with an 87-line program for the PDP-8/E that simulates the 
landing of a lunar rocket, although without output. 

The last appendix, on Package Programs, presents four 
of the six programs from the first edition, dropping matrix 
inversion and grade analysis. The linear programming 
example uses the same objective function, subject to the 
same constraints, but the program is completely different, 
and produces a much shorter output, half a page instead of 
two pages. 

The old Selected Bibliography was a single list, two 
pages long. The new one is over three pages long, with 
several publications for each chapter, except for chapters 
3-8, for which there is one group of five books on BASIC, 
by Farina, Kemeny & Kurtz, Sass, Sharpe, and Spencer. 

All these changes do little to help this become a unified 
text, with a feeling of overall cohesiveness between its 
various chapters. The disjointedness persists. The biggest 
fault is still the sudden and overwhelming presentation of 
the entire BASIC repertoire of characters, definitions, 
statements, and error messages, after only one short 
program has been given, thus putting a stone wall directly 
in the reader's path. However, the book no longer begins to 
fall apart apart by page 1 3 ; because of the added material, 
the collapse doesn't begin until page 32. 



jjc jjc jjc 

6. A Guide to BASIC Programming: A Time-Sharing Lan- 
guage, by Donald D. Spencer. Pub. Dec. 2, 1969, by 
Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 216 pages 6V2 x 9 l A, $6.95 
(paperback). 

One of the better books, with an easily understood 
text, many examples, flowcharts throughout. Rating: B+ 

This book has many features to recommend it, and 
only a few drawbacks. There are many examples of each 
new statement, and many flowcharts, just about one for 
each program. Every chapter ends in exercises, although 
without answers. 

Spencer is the only author other than Sass (21) to 
provide a short history of time-sharing, starting with the 
1961 CTSS at MIT. The first chapter also presents a 15-line 
program for finding the roots of a quadratic equation, but 
with no explanation other than the mechanics of putting it 
into the system. 

The second chapter, an Introduction to BASIC, is 
mainly about flowcharting. The next chapter, on Elements 
of BASIC, does get into the language, in a slow but sure 
way, using only REM and LET. The fourth chapter, on 
Reading and Printing, contains the first complete program, 
six lines on determining true annual interest rate, plus five 
more programs. 

Chapter five begins to separate the men from the boys, 
or rather the high-school kids from the college students, 
with one example that uses the summation sigma. Another 
example goes off on a tangent by taking up three pages to 
discuss in detail the Newton-Raphson method for calculat- 
ing square roots. Chapter six is on loops. Chapter seven, on 
Arrays and Subscripted Variables, contains another digres- 
sion, a confusing one on the knight's tour. This may be a 
practical application of tables, but in a text as elementary 
as this, it's too much, adding little or nothing other than 



confusion. The only point in including it seems to be the 
use of subscripted variables to indicate the path of the tour. 

There is a fine chapter on matrices, 16 pages, taking 
the time to discuss the subject fully and carefully. Chapter 
11 is Sample Programs For Study, selected from a variety 
of fields, with 17 problems on 45 pages, including 
Fibonacci numbers, coordinate geometry, greatest common 
divisor, compound interest, satellite orbit (two-dimen- 
sional), polynomial evaluation, generating prime numbers, 
maze-rurining, and magic-square generation. The last chap- 
ter, Problems For Reader Solution, has 23 problems, some 
with flowcharts (but none with solutions) including mort- 
gage calculation, inventory turnover, number-base conver- 
sion, etc. 

The section on references is unique: five pages that list 
8 books on BASIC, 13 manufacturers' books on BASIC, 15 
on other programming languages, 5 on programming and 
computers, etc. 

There are five appendixes. The first is on BASIC 
implementations, a unique chart showing which of 96 
statements are available on each of 14 different time- 
sharing systems. The second appendix is 7 pages on the 
ASR33 Teletype, followed by two pages on General 
Electric time-sharing commands, then a five-page glossary, 
and a two-page true-false quiz on BASIC. 

This is one of the better books, with an easily 
understood text, many examples, flowcharts throughout, 
and many programs. The drawbacks are few: no answers to 
the exercises, and wandering off twice (Newton-Raphson, 
knight's tour). The use of the summation sigma may 
actually bother only a few readers who haven't gotten that 
far in mathematics. 

The typography is distracting, as the book is not well 
designed. There are too many typefaces; page 33, for 
instance, contains five different ones, making it a very busy 
page, with different fonts for the text, section headings, 
sample program lines, an actual program, and italics for 
formula constants. 



* He * 

7. Problem-Solving With the Computer, by Edwin R. Sage. 
Pub. 1969 by Entelek, Newburyport, Mass., 244 pages, 7 x 

10, $4.95 (paperback). 

Very slowly paced, aimed at secondary-school stu- 
dents. Rating: B 

The first thing one might notice in this book is the very 
wide margin, almost three inches, which is used 47 times 
alongside programs and flowcharts. If the margin were 
reduced to just under an inch, the book could be made 
almost 30% narrower. 

This is a high-school text, for grades 8 through 12. It 
teaches by giving a problem and then discussing the 
solution in detail. There is a flowchart for every demonstra- 
tion problem. 

There are eight chapters: BASIC Skills I, BASIC Skills 

11, A New Look at Numbers (rounding off, primes, random 
numbers, etc.), Algebra and the Computer, Geometry and 
the Computer, Data (FOR-NEXT, subscripts), Deter- 
minants, Approximations. 

Sage is one of the very few to discuss debugging with 
the use of PRINT statements, and also by longhand, and in 
detail. He is also the only one to use the phrase "fall 
through," and to explain this highly important principle. 

There are exercises after the introduction of every new 
idea, but without answers. These problems are all purely 
mathematical, and show little imagination. The one place 
where some imagination is used is in introducing flow- 
charts, where this is done for the steps involved in making a 
telephone call. 

Some items are covered only as "Additional Facts" 
following the summaries at the ends of the chapters. This 
includes SQR and ABS, covered in one sentence each. 

In the chapter on Geometry and the Computer, many 
problems are examined at length and in great detail. This is 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



fine for the student who is weak in geometry, although it 
would bore one who isn't. 

Although the beginning of the book is extremely slow, 
the last chapter, on approximations, is not slow and easy at 
all, and will be understood only by the bright students. The 
approximations are for sine and cosine, natural logarithms, 
slope of tangent line, and limits. 



# # # 



8. Introduction to Programming: A BASIC Approach, by 
Van Court Hare, Jr. Pub. May 25, 1970, by Harcourt, Brace 
& Jovanovich, New York, N. Y., 436 pages, 6x9, $10.95 
(hardcover). 

The only book to go extensively into computer 
hardware (120 pages) and also FORTRAN (60 pages). 
Fairly well done, with many interesting features. Rating: 
for the entire book: B+; for the BASIC portion only: B 

The book gets a higher rating for its entirety than for 
the BASIC portion alone because of its uniqueness as a 
three-part text: hardware, BASIC, and FORTRAN. 

The beginning chapters, on "the history and economics 
of computer development, the parts of a computer system, 
and the way in which computers handle data," go into just 
about the right amount of detail: enough to be informative, 
not so much as to be confusing and overly technical. The 
author goes into much more than technical developments; 
he tells how, for instance, Remington Rand had the "initial 
lead in manufacturing large-scale machines," but lost out to 
IBM. 

The brief section on the development of programming 
languages is interesting and the only one in all these books. 
Hare is also the only author to quote from the Bible: "But 
let your communication be Yea, yea, Nay, nay; for 
whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil" (from 
Matthew 5:37, part of the Sermon on the Mount). 

Hare is worldly as well as colloquial: he uses Playboy as 
an example of a publication, and writes of cores as "small 
donuts of magnetic material." And he has some interesting 
comments, such as on reliability: "If our automobiles and 
home television sets worked one millionth as reliably as 
computers do, there would be no local electronic or garage 
mechanic who could pay his rent; they would all be out of 
business." 

Each chapter ends with problems, without answers. 

Some of the sentences in the hardware portion of the 
book are so terse as to be confusing to the novice, such as 
"The output of the computer is often in excess of printing 
capability, and a number of printers may be used . . ." 
Another sentence that could use some more explanation is 
"The light pen is an outgrowth of friend-or-foe radar 
developments." An inquiring mind might want to know a 
little more than just that. 

Around page 100 the author begins to slide slowly into 
BASIC, in a chapter on Programming Essentials, without 
going into any details of the language. The first exposure to 
a BASIC program is on page 128, with a five-liner on net 
pay, and three pages of explanation. Although many short 
programs are presented in the following three dozen pages, 
there is not one single run, not in the entire chapter on 
END, PRINT, READ, and DATA, nor in the chapter on 
LET and stored functions. Is this to get the reader to try 
these short programs on a terminal? 

Not until page 164 is there a program of any 
substance: eight lines on summing the numbers from 1 to 
10. Yet by page 174 there is a 32-line program, which, 
although simple, might not be understood, with so little 
preparation up to this point, except by the brighter readers 
and students. The program on page 176 is also presented 
without adequate preparation, as are several subsequent 
programs. 

Sorting is covered only in problems at the end of a 
chapter, not in the preceding text. These are not problems, 
actually, but rather are presentations of three sorting 

MAY-JUNE 1975 75 



programs. 

Seven pages are devoted to matrices, with only one 
program on matrix operations, in a chapter on BASIC 
extensions, called Adult BASIC. The definition of matrix 
inversion is quite murky except to an expert on the subject, 
or to someone who has just taken a course on it. 

Although the errors in the book are minor, they seem 
to stand out, perhaps because most of them are so obvious, 
such as (on page 289), "octal 4 is equal to 010." A few 
pages earlier, the text is careful to point out that in the 
preceding program, there is a leading space before a string 
variable in quotes. Yet in the program itself, there is no 
leading space in the referenced line. 

Many of the programs are interesting, but many of 
them have too little explanation for a good understanding. 
An example is the program on page 296 for right-justifying 
the output, with only five explanatory sentences; enough 
for an experienced programmer, but too little for a 
beginner. 

The portion on BASIC ends with a chapter of selected 
computer problems. They are all long and complex, much 
too much for the little preparation so far, on computer 
ciphering and deciphering, dating game, mazes and laby- 
rinths. Very nice, but too hard, and with too little 
explanation. The author seems to assume top students who 
will dig hard into the problems and figure them out as a 
challenge. 

Starting on page 233, Hare begins to work toward 
FORTRAN, saying it is more flexible, in a footnote. (This 
book has more footnotes than many scholarly monographs: 
96 of them.) Hare seems more interested in the nitty-gritty 
of FORTRAN than of BASIC, where he seems more 
interested in applications. A FORTRAN program on 
cross-tabulation is explained in far greater detail than any 
of the BASIC programs. 

There is some nice detail on the importance of 
rounding off in affecting close decisions, such as credit 
being accepted or rejected. However, FORTRAN is some- 
how made to seem hellishly complex, which to some it may 
well be. 

There are 18 chapters: From Loom to Electron; 
Bistable Devices and Binary Codes; Input/Output Devices; 
Memory Devices; Data and Programs in Memory; Program- 
ming Essentials; Getting the Computer to Work; END 
PRINT, READ, and DATA; LET and Stored Func- 
tions; REM, GO TO, IF-THEN, and INPUT; FOR-NEXT, 
Subscripted Variables, and DIM; Subroutines and Their 
Use; A Baker's Dozen (13 problems with computer solu- 
tions); Extensions of the BASIC Language; Selected Com- 
puter Problems; Extending What You Have Learned (data 
format, introduction to FORTRAN); and two chapters on 
Thirteen FORTRAN Translations (of the BASIC programs 
in chapter 13). 

The first appendix is unique: a side-by-side comparison 
of the individual features and statements of BASIC and 
FORTRAN, nine pages worth. 

Hare has the longest glossary of all these authors: 16 
pages. Nolan (5) has 1 1V4, Sass (21) has 8, and Spencer (6) 
has 5 pages. 

The author goes into great detail in some places, such 
as explaining why most systems require RUBOUT at the 
end of each line on paper tape when punching, and also the 
reason for typing TAPE before nputting tape; no other 
author explains these two things. *,t when it comes to the 
chapter involving PRINT, there aic no examples of the 
various PRINT options. Nor is there a single printout in the 
chapter on LET and stored functions. The reader finds 
himself saying "Show me!" Thus this is an uneven book, 
with too much detail in many places where it isn't really 
necessary, and not enough in all too many instances. 

The book is set in a sans-serif type. Some programs are 
set in boldface, others are Teletype originals in various 
reductions from full-size to quite small; the mixture 
produces many odd-looking pages. 

This book may be suitable for class use where the 
problems will be worked, but not for reading only. The 
author seems to be writing on a programmer-to-programmer 
level. 

To be continued next issue. 



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WHERE ARE THEY? 



Reality Interaction Game." We promised it to you in 
this issue but we just didn't get it polished up in time. But 
it's coming - and that's a promise. 

"Interview Activity." Results from the questionnaire 
which appeared in the Nov-Dec 1974 issue are still coming 
in. They will be summarized in a future issue. 





cles 



*anted 



Are you using the computer in art work? If so, please 
note that Creative Computing has a special art issue coming 
up next spring (Mar-Apr 1976). Why not contribute to this 
issue? Contributions should be 250 to 1500 words - or 
more if you have a lot to say! Typed, double-spaced. Please 
consider the questions below in preparing your article. 

Get your material in EARLY. Absolute, final, last 
cut-off date is October 15, 1975 but don't wait 'till then. 
Also, early material has a much higher probability getting a 
good spot in the issue. DO IT TODAY! 

How/why did you become involved with the computer (in 
producing art)? 



What is your art background? 

What role does the computer play for you 
tool, etc.? What is your role? 



. simulation, 



Are your computer works related to non-computer art? 

Do you have a final image in mind when work begins? 

Could your work be done without the aid of a computer? If 
yes, why use the computer? 

To what extent are you involved in the technical 
production of your work, for example, in programming? 

Do you feel art work created with a computer has now or 
will have an impact on art as a whole in the future? 

Do you intend to continue using the computer to create art 
pieces? 

Do you recommend the use of the computer for others in 
creating works of art? 

Along with your article, opinion, or other good words 
we would like illustrations, graphics, and photos of your 
work. Reproduction quality please (sharp B & W artwork, 
glossy B & W photos 5 x 7 or larger, preferably 8x10) 

READERS AND WRITERS!! Please submit additional 
questions you'd like us to focus on. 

Please send all material, artwork, responses, questions, 
etc. direct to the Creative Computing art issue guest editor: 

Ruth Leavitt 
531 5 Dupont Ave. South 
Minneapolis, MN 55419 
(612) 825-9005